Hot answers tagged

21

They identify the size of the formation. That Free French unit you referred to with one X is actually a brigade, not a division. Similarly, the Greek and German unit facing each other German unit both have a single X, and has been explicitly labelled as brigades. All other units, including the Italian one you mentioned, have XX - indicating they are ...


21

The Prime Meridian we use now was the one the British chose, since it went through Greenwich Observatory near London. France had their own where Paris was 0 degrees, the US had one. When the situation of each nation having its own longitude got too annoying, they picked one. England's won out because of 2 factors: 1) England was the largest power at the ...


13

The convention was established by Ptolemy (AD 90 – c. AD 168) in his main work, Geography. The following is a 15th century reconstruction of Ptolemy's world map: It's an arbitrary decision, and several reversed maps exist. There are also maps that don't follow a standard orientation, some examples are T and O maps, polar maps, and Dymaxion/Fuller maps. ...


13

The book "Longitude" discusses this, and says the international standardization of the prime meridian arose mainly due to the publication of practical astronomical tables which used the Greenwich meridian. As ships started using these tables for navigation (as opposed to dead reckoning), they naturally switched to using the Greenwich meridian if they hadn't ...


13

Realistically speaking a reasonably knowledgeable Japanese person would've been able to spot Japan on a world map, based on the islands' relative position to Korea and China. This is probably true since at least the 400s. They were, after all, able to engage in extensive trade and diplomacy with the mainland. Their grasp of geography couldn't be that far off ...


12

There is a German Wikipedia entry for it, but I found no entry for this specific 'Schwedenschanze'. It is a military Sconce (fortification) (German: Schanze) or Hill fort, the name is based on the Thirty Years' War. Sweden (German: Schweden) was a participant during the war. It is not necessary, that the Schwedenschanze you found is a real Swedish sconce. ...


12

The first satellite image of Earth was taken in 1959. At that time, as far as I can tell, aerial photography and stereoplotters were used to produce topographic maps with accuracy that I imagine would have depended mostly on the quality of the aerial photographs, but probably down to a few meters. For larger maps depicting the Earth, I think the answer ...


11

This is a rough translation (work in progress). Notice that the text is rhymed, and some of it (I find ) it is illegible. 2 Norway and Sweden \\ Loving to make progress these nations both \\ they advance in the art of lazy bones 3 Finland \\ Even among bears the priestly tail \\ Attempts to place herself and summon factions \\ But only those ...


11

Your question assumes that some kind of a formal decision was made and that most countries explicitly agree that there is an official demarcation. As this boundary is mostly cartographical, no country has ever, to the best of my knowledge, made an issue out of this location. It's been the practice to just use whatever demarcation that other cartographers ...


11

Some maps from some UK universities http://oldmapsonline.org/


11

The maps were almost as accurate as they are after the launch of satellites. And this has little to do with air photography. And celestial navigation ("sextants" hinted in the previous message) was responsible only for mapping of remote islands. The main method of making accurate maps was geodesic survey. One begins with laying a base, that is measure ...


11

The Romans were good surveyors. Vitruvius described surveying tools and methods in a book that was still used in the Middle Ages, hundreds of years after it was written. By laying out stakes at fixed distances and using a plumb with simple sighting rods, it is very easy to lay out squares, lines, triangles, etc., and to measure the distances between ...


9

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_cartography has a very good description. Ptolemy suggested mapping a spherical earth with lines of longitude/latitude but didn't do very much field work. There are Arabic maps from C9-C10 which used astronomical observations to get their important cities in the right place. The maps from 1500 are essentially ...


8

http://www.euratlas.net/history/europe/index.html This is by far the best map website, it has maps from 1AD to 2000AD. http://www.euratlas.net/antique/cartography/index.html


8

Here's a zoomed-in screenshot of a map I made using Harvard's Geospatial Library. As you can see in the left, the layer I chose was "Germany State Boundaries, 1914." The little exclave in the bottom center of the screen is Achberg. If you zoom in a little more, it is labeled, but I chose to stay a little further out so you could see the other exclaves. It'...


8

The technology to determine the narrowest point in northern England is as nothing compared to that necessary for supplying Roman towns with running water and baths, as with the Nimes Aqueduct in Southern France, shown here at the Pont du Gard crossing of Gardon River. The Fontaine d'Eure, at 76 m (249 ft) above sea level, is only 17 m (56 ft) higher ...


8

General answer: it will probably depend what you define as "the shape". Ultimately, once landfall was made on opposite coasts (1820-1840), and land was proven to be there, it was a matter of looking at all the places a ship had sailed through without hitting anything, concluding that the coastline must be further south than that, and drawing in a dotted line ...


7

Here are some sites that I like: • Historical maps, University of Texas (more to come)


7

Harvard possesses one of the United State's largest collection of maps. Recently, they have been working on digitizing the collection. People who know how to use this kind of stuff can probably do a lot with the online Geospatial Library. I went to a presentation given by Harvard's GIS team. If I ever find my notes, I'll expand this answer with the other ...


6

I realise I am very late in answering this, but I cannot stress this enough: the best source by far for historical maps that I have ever found, is David Rumseys amazing online collections I would also like to point you in the direction of this book; Cartographies of Time though it might be more time-space related than what you are looking for.


6

The first thing I can think of is Portolan charts, the Wikipedia page is not very clear but it links here which has some more information. (full frameset for the second link)


6

"Europe" can mean different things depending on context. To geologists, there is no such thing as a distinct European land-mass since it is inseparable from Asia (hence Eurasia). Politically, Europe might mean the member states of the EU or the EEC. In sporting terms, Israel and Kazakhstan are in Europe. According to Turkey, country is entirely in Europe, ...


5

The Wikipedia page on the British Official History of the Great War. A lot of the volumes are available as PDFs in various web archives. For example, this map, in the chapter on First Contact with the Enemy is extracted from a volume freely available:


5

Although Euclid is renowned for his compilation of the axioms and theorems of plane geometry, most if not all of this material had been known for centuries. With these mathematical tools, and the use of strings and simple pedometers and protractors, remarkably accurate maps could be drawn by the ancients for territories that were relatively level and pace-...


5

Actually, I've found one already answered question, that gives some info on what I'm trying to find. Good online sources for historical maps Useful links from there are (sorted by usefulness): http://www.oldmapsonline.org/ http://www.euratlas.net/antique/cartography/index.html http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/ http://www.davidrumsey.com/ http://...


5

I'm sure there are better examples, but I'm particularly fond of the only pre-1453 map of Constantinople, which dates from 1422 (see below). Wikipedia has a list of old manuscript maps, which appear to date from the 7th to the 15th century, so if there are Byzantine maps to be found, they might be there.


5

Measuring, surveying, and map making are ancient practices by the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Druids, Chinese... pretty much everyone knew how to trace and measure lines and angles over a long distance. Surveying is based on geometry, in particular triangles, and that was all well known at the time. By the time Hadrian's Wall was begun (122 AD), Euclid's ...


5

A very interesting question, as it turns out. The coast of Antarctica wasn't definitively sighted until about 1820, so no globe until then would have featured it. I found this pocket globe made by Abel Klinger in I believe 18801 that shows the barest outline of some of the coast of Antarctica. Examining some globes from the same manufacturer in 1855, I can'...


4

They symbolize the sizes of units (so if the flag represent a division with 10,000 people or an army with 200,000) On smaller maps you may also see dots or lines. .-squad ..-platoon I-Company II-Battalion III-Regiment X-Brigade XX-Division XXX-Corp XXXX-Army XXXXX-Army Group XXXXXX-Theather


3

I think if there would be some Italian guy here and could translate all the sentences, it would be easier. Here's my try. In Algeria the Arab man represents French problems there. Of course Russia is bad so it is represented as an ugly butcher. Poland is divided by three states (notice chains). There are fightings in Balkans. The man kicking is probably ...



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