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21

They identify the size of the formation. That Free French unit you referred to with one X is actually a brigade, not a division. Similarly, the Greek and German unit facing each other German unit both have a single X, and has been explicitly labelled as brigades. All other units, including the Italian one you mentioned, have XX - indicating they are ...


20

The Prime Meridian we use now was the one the British chose, since it went through Greenwich Observatory near London. France had their own where Paris was 0 degrees, the US had one. When the situation of each nation having its own longitude got too annoying, they picked one. England's won out because of 2 factors: 1) England was the largest power at the ...


13

The book "Longitude" discusses this, and says the international standardization of the prime meridian arose mainly due to the publication of practical astronomical tables which used the Greenwich meridian. As ships started using these tables for navigation (as opposed to dead reckoning), they naturally switched to using the Greenwich meridian if they hadn't ...


12

The first satellite image of Earth was taken in 1959. At that time, as far as I can tell, aerial photography and stereoplotters were used to produce topographic maps with accuracy that I imagine would have depended mostly on the quality of the aerial photographs, but probably down to a few meters. For larger maps depicting the Earth, I think the answer ...


11

The maps were almost as accurate as they are after the launch of satellites. And this has little to do with air photography. And celestial navigation ("sextants" hinted in the previous message) was responsible only for mapping of remote islands. The main method of making accurate maps was geodesic survey. One begins with laying a base, that is measure ...


8

Here's a zoomed-in screenshot of a map I made using Harvard's Geospatial Library. As you can see in the left, the layer I chose was "Germany State Boundaries, 1914." The little exclave in the bottom center of the screen is Achberg. If you zoom in a little more, it is labeled, but I chose to stay a little further out so you could see the other exclaves. ...


7

Harvard possesses one of the United State's largest collection of maps. Recently, they have been working on digitizing the collection. People who know how to use this kind of stuff can probably do a lot with the online Geospatial Library. I went to a presentation given by Harvard's GIS team. If I ever find my notes, I'll expand this answer with the other ...


5

Actually, I've found one already answered question, that gives some info on what I'm trying to find. Good online sources for historical maps Useful links from there are (sorted by usefulness): http://www.oldmapsonline.org/ http://www.euratlas.net/antique/cartography/index.html http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/ http://www.davidrumsey.com/ ...


5

The Wikipedia page on the British Official History of the Great War. A lot of the volumes are available as PDFs in various web archives. For example, this map, in the chapter on First Contact with the Enemy is extracted from a volume freely available:


4

They symbolize the sizes of units (so if the flag represent a division with 10,000 people or an army with 200,000) On smaller maps you may also see dots or lines. .-squad ..-platoon I-Company II-Battalion III-Regiment X-Brigade XX-Division XXX-Corp XXXX-Army XXXXX-Army Group XXXXXX-Theather


3

National Geographic is generally considered the premier map maker since the inception of the society over a hundred years ago. The National Geographic 1970 World Map probably answers your question of "What was the most accurate map of the Earth before satellites?" Note that the premise of your question may be off kilter. In most cases it is not the accuracy ...


2

You could check Wikipedia In the immediate post-World War One period, Skalat was seized by local Ukrainian activists, who declared that the town was part of West Ukrainian People's Republic. Polish - Ukrainian tension escalated, and climaxed in the Polish–Ukrainian War. On April 23, 1919, Ukrainian activists murdered a popular Roman Catholic parish ...


1

There is a detailed administrative map of the German Empire on Wikimedia, and most small exclaves, such as Achberg, are visible, and their colour helps to see exclaves of which state they are. It is possible some of the smaller exclaves (smaller than a village) are not directly visible, but combined by Two Shed's answer, it should be possible to make an ...


1

The kind of software you are trying to make exists: http://www.clockwk.com/ It is quite convenient and detailed, and covers the period for which sufficient data are available. But it is not free. EDIT. To address some concerns expressed in comments. This is the web page of the person who made this software. I know him personally and the page is around for ...


1

The choice of the Greenwich Meridian (for the 0 degree longitude) was arrived at during a time when Britain was the primary naval power and London was the "center" of the world. It is fortunate at the 180 degree line (relative to the Greenwich Meridian) mostly ran through the Pacific Ocean. That made it convenient to have much the international date line ...



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