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England had won its big battles against France in the Hundred Years' War (Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt etc.), typically outnumbered 2 to 1 or even 3 to 1. Likewise, Portugal had a lower population than Spain and was "always" outnumbered by Spain. This was particularly true in this battle because some of the Portuguese had defected to the Spanish side. In ...


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Spices were what we would nowadays call mass luxuries. These are luxury goods that the masses can afford in small quantities. They are desired because they are out of the ordinary, and offer a "change of pace." They are expensive on a per-unit basis, but it is the "smallness" of use that makes them affordable. Spices had both these qualities at the time. So ...


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In architecture "Norman" is just the insular British term for Romanesque architecture in Britain and Normandy since Romanesque architecture was basically introduced to Britain when the Norman Dynasty ruled England. It is like the insular British and American term "Victorian" for 19th century architecture. The reason why the Normans and "Normans" associated ...


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The Normans, this "bunch of Vikings" as you call then, did not build cathedrals with their own hands. They hired stonemasons and other craftsmen to do it.


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It's an earldom. You can see here a list of them: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earldoms


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In towns one might see a medieval equivalent of these public urinals: or even: For some reason these very space- and time-efficient conveniences have never caught on in North America; but they are everywhere in big towns of the Netherlands.


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No baron would ever wear the livery of another. Livery originated in Europe in the 14th century and was applied within the household and by followers of the noble they owed fealty to. A baron would have his own coat of arms and his retainers would wear his colours, his livery. Likewise for an earl, although he would likely (not always!) have more ...


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There were latrines, aka public toilets, in the Roman era... to the extent that Vespasian set out to institute a urine tax, and public urinals still hold the latter's name today in some countries. They continued to exist afterwards into the middle ages. There may have been times where they weren't as commonplace as they could have been, but they most ...


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Entrance varied dramatically by time and place, with students enrolling at Oxford or Paris around the age of 14 to study the liberal arts, and at Bologna around the age of 30 to study law. Historically the curriculum of a liberal arts degree was first the study of the trivium of grammar, rhetoric and logic, followed by the quadrivium of arithmetic, ...


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A person would have to successfully complete what we would now call a "grammar school." Mostly, a person had to be able to read and write, but in several languages. Latin, which was the "universal" language, plus their native language, and many also studied Greek. After the Renaissance, French, Italian, and Spanish. Except for people who were English or ...


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Power spreads easily.they were powerfull in those days.they were boosted by their faith and high morale.there was also a rape case and the wealth of spain.so they struck iberia hard.


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Nope. There isn't. Since there is no competition with "China from China" the best way to value ceramics both yesterday and today is by weight(lighter the better), color (blues and bright whites in contrast), hardness (thin but strong), form (simple plate or a vase for holding water implying enormous strength), etc The only way a laymen might pick up a fraud ...


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There is no one answer to your question. The outcome depended not only on the strength of the fortress, but also the force ratio, the capability of each side to endure a war of attrition (i.e. logistics), the determination of each side to win despite the costs, and superiority of weaponry. See, generally, [Kress and Talmor, "A New Look at the 3:1 Rule of ...


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The main condition was sufficient food and water supply, and of course sufficient number of people to man the walls. Castles were actually very effective tool of defense, and in many cases the attacking army would just bypass them without a siege. But if the attacking army had enough people, enough time and good sources of supplies, then the only hope of the ...


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Link Castles were very hard to take and required several months of siege and a numerically superior force to take. It was really a logistical battle between the siege force and the castle. If the siege force ran out of food, which was common given the logistics of most armies at the time, it would have to withdraw and end the siege. If the attacker was ...


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No. That theory doesn't make a whole lot of sense. First, while the Vikings and the Germans practiced "pagan" religions, their status as "co-religionists" was tenuous at best. Nor did they have other meaningful ties (other than perhaps shared DNA through various wanderings). Vikings were not likely to think "This guy Charlemagne is hurting our Germans, so ...


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It just doesn't seem plausible to my ignorant brain just to see an enemy army and shout "ATTAAACK!" without first saying something to the enemy commander, especially in a situation where it was the respective armies first encounter. That makes me think there might have been a formal and cultural way of doing it. Ideally, you'd like to shout "attack!" ...


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I have looked at the descriptions of many of the battles, especially the 100 Years' War, and most of them were preceded by negotiations, leading us to believe that it may have been customary and was at the very least common.


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Sounds like a villain in a James Bond movie. Seriously...dispatching emissaries prior to any contact with friend or foe alike was I believe it was considered normative in Roman Times especially prior to giving battle as there are no greater victories than ones that require no battle be given in the first place. This would change during Imperial Rome though. ...


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Joan of Arc entered during the Siege of Orleans, in which the French already had the advantage by defending a well fortified position. Her assault on Paris failed and the city was only taken by diplomatic means. Besides this, there were two major battles in the final stage of the war: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Formigny https://en.m....


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While, I have not been able to verify the claim that Tassilon the first was the father of Charibert or any other claim as to Charibert's ancestry, I have found many different claims as to who he descended from, most of which are not coming from reliable sources. Neither of the sources you reference are very reliable either, one is a family tree of an ...


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What is certainly known about the possibility of a real King Arthur . . . is that it's possible he existed. That much is noncontroversial. However, I'm of the "where there's smoke, there's fire" school of thought, meaning I believe the "possible" can be pushed to become "probable." Here's the skeleton of my argument. The Battle of Badon is generally ...



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