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The Dark Ages in one possible view are Desolation of Rome (480 A.D.) to the restoration of the Holy Roman Empire by Charlemagne (774 A.D.). They are called the "dark ages" because during that time literature, writing and history went virtually extinct in Western Europe. Some people include the the 9th, 10th, and 11th century (up to the Norman invasion of ...


0

The Silk Road was very secure during the peak of the Mongolian Empire, basically the early 13th to 15th centuries. Most of it was subsumed in Mongol controlled territory, and the movements of troops along or around it also acted as a "policing" mechanism. Prior to the Mongols, the nearly-as-ferocious Turks maintained the security over most the Silk Road. ...


16

Mentions of Bandits and robbers: Bandits and robbers were a constant threat on the Silk Road. Xuanzang mentions several encounters with bandits. Near Dunhuang, the Silk Road split in two to skirt the rim of the Taklamakan Desert. The roads met again 1400 miles west at Kashgar. But between these two oases lay the Silk Road's most dangerous terrain. ...


5

Wherever Henry the Fowler happened to be. During this period, the kingdom was basically ruled from wherever its king held court. There was no single "ruling seat" per se since the King tended to move around his kingdom a lot, hunting, touring as well as campaigning. The closest is probably the several preferred residences that kings would have had. These ...


2

The most prominent voice for secular thinking in medieval Europe was undoubtedly Franciscan friar Roger Bacon (1214-1292). Even though Bacon was a monk, the experimental work he did led many people to start thinking and believing in natural phenomenon, whereas previously the trend was consider everything the "work of God". In this way he was the first great ...


3

I cannot think of any examples in mediaeval Western Europe. However, the Persian philosopher Muḥammad ibn Zakariyā ar-Rāzī (died 925) taught that all religions (Christianity, Islam etc.) were taught by false prophets who received their revelations from evil spirits. The Greek philosopher Georgios Gemistos Plethon (died ca. 1452) wanted to abolish ...


8

In response to question (1), very much so. You could row the boat, you could pole it, you could have it towed by people or beasts of burden, or if the wind was in your favor, you could sail up the river. Poling and towing, in particular, could be used on any navigable river regardless of how strong the current was.


5

Yes. Punts, Barges and Hulks were poled or towed up river. Here's a book with multiple chapters focused on Southern Northern Europe: Medieval Boat and Ship Finds of Germany, the Low Countries, and Northeast France


7

One reason for this is to connect two pieces of artwork. This is a long section, but I'm going to paste in entirety for context. The images are facing pages from a manuscript known as the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, or the Golden Book of St. Emmeram. Written for the Carolingian King Charles the Bald about 870, the manuscript contains the four Gospels. ...


2

Following and expanding on from Mike L's comment the short answer will be we don't know. Numbers of armies as quoted in works at or close to the time were often (always?) exaggerated, you know our guys only had 10,000 and the bad guys, they had a 100,000 and we still beat them. Camp followers and townsfolk could also get lumped into the count regardless of ...



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