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The number of Jews who lent money in the Middle Ages is unfortunately commonly over-estimated. The majority of Jews had jobs that did not involve money-lending. This is a fairly new historical discovery, though more and more research is coming out every year. For a good, scholarly, and responsible introduction see: Margolis, Ethan Levi, "Evidence that the ...


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Maybe you are confusing situations: Currently, the idea of "Reconquista" is just held to talk about the chronological and geographical frame, but the idea of a "managed" process to take all of the Iberian Peninsula back from the Muslim rulers is generally discredited as a "post-facto" fabrication (giving a "national idea" of "proto-Spain" to the several ...


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It depends who is talking. As @Alex pointed in his comment Serious historians do not use the words "good", "bad", "evil" etc. These notions depend on time and culture. So when talking about different time and different culture, a scientist should avoid them. What is important, the process of taking back Spain (and Portugal) is called not a "crusade", ...


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You have somewhat answered your own question. The Reeve and Bailiff were essentially the same job in Medieval England. The Reeve was a person that oversaw the land and crops and was in charge of the peasants. A reeve was basically an estate manager. A reeve is actually described in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, describing the reeve as a highly ...


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In 15th century Europe the standard pen was the quill pen. There is a very famous book "Il Libro dell' Arte" by Cennino d'Andrea Cennini. It describes writing and painting technology in the 15th century completely. You can buy it on Amazon. Quill pens were cut from the feather of a bird like a goose using a knife. The tip of the pen is dipped in ink. It ...


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See Textes pour les cahiers du sud (1987) and Ecritures cathares (1968) by Rene Nelli. The most famous tract is the The Provencal Ritual of the Albigeois published in facsimile by Jean Cledat:


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Its not France, but I imagine the situation would be similar to England. In the middle ages English families had a size of 5 on average, until the black death reduced it to 4 on average. Source


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There are many theories on why the Viking expansion occurred and there is no real consensus on which (or which combination) is the correct one. This particular explaination, that Pagan Scandinavia attacked Christian Europe in an ideological response to the Carolingian expansion, is merely yet another theory on this highly contentious topic. Although it seems ...


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As far as we can tell, Medieval French families were significantly bigger than modern western families - averaging perhaps around five to six. In contrast, modern France has an average household size of 2.38. However, they remained relatively small scale, and somewhat nuclear families of mostly two generations. Note the standard disclaimers apply: pre-modern ...


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Blood ties were just as strong in Rome, and Rome was only one element of Ancient times, all of which had dynastic lines just as much or more as France and England in the Middle Ages. Emperors were chosen by the Military, and in times of trouble the current Emperor might be toppled and a usurper put in place, and the relatives of the former regime killed. ...


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In a nutshell, Europe had a feudal system unlike the Roman world where the monarchy was added on top of the old republican system. The feudal system was based on personal relationships with a liege.



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