New answers tagged middle-ages
Agincourt I disagree with your contention that mud was the difference. You don't wipe out the other side when performing a static defense because of mud and forest on the side. Somebody has to do the killing.
The Battle of Falkirk (1298) saw the Welsh longbowmen of Edward I decisively defeat the shiltrons (spearmen) of William Wallace. The use of the longbow was new to the Scots: His army also brought a devastating new weapon - the English longbow - and a host of English and Welsh archers. Regarding the significance of the longbow in this battle, History ...
In the British Isles the LongBow was first recorded as being used by the Welsh in AD 633, when Offrid, the son of Edwin, king of Northumbria, was killed by an arrow shot from a Welsh longbow during a battle between the Welsh and the Mercians—more than five centuries before any record of its military use in England.
Europe during the middle ages mainly just made use of gold that was already in circulation, because, as you said, the trade with Africa was disrupted. It didn't matter much however -economically- because the currency shifted to silver and copper in all but the byzantine empire. And both were in ample supply. As Alex already mentioned, eastern Europe had ...
I'll add that the Carpathian mountains in Eastern Europe have been a very rich source of gold in the middle ages and before. The Roman conquering of Dacia in 106 AD - modern day Romania is said to have revitalized the Roman empire economy and prolonged its life by at least 100 years (160 metric tons of pure gold and 300 metric tons of silver were brought to ...
Petrarch, in the 14th C, started using the term Renaissance and from there the term middle ages quickly arrived. You had the classical period ending in, pick-your-date (313,325,476,600) and the rebirth, which, according to Petrarch, was in the "now."
Half the Old World's gold around the medieval period came from Mali: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mali_Empire#Economy Credit also to many many hours playing Civilisation 4 as Mansa Musa for knowing this one!
Life in medieval times was in the way you are asking not much different than it is now. You may want to read The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer. In many of the stories he paints a picture of day to day life in medieval England and you will see it was not too much different than things are now. To answer some of your specific points: The middle class: there ...
In the Greek and Roman Era there were a number of sources in Europe tapped for gold.. These were often alluvial (alluvium is loose soil or sediment, usually around water) deposits near the mouths of rivers in Lydia, Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor. Later more standard mines were found in the Balkans. Rome found similar river deposits in North Italy, Spain, ...
I know that there are gold mines in Russia, Germany/France/Switzerland area, so it may have come from there source
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