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5

Wherever Henry the Fowler happened to be. During this period, the kingdom was basically ruled from wherever its king held court. There was no single "ruling seat" per se since the King tended to move around his kingdom a lot, hunting, touring as well as campaigning. The closest is probably the several preferred residences that kings would have had. These ...


2

The most prominent voice for secular thinking in medieval Europe was undoubtedly Franciscan friar Roger Bacon (1214-1292). Even though Bacon was a monk, the experimental work he did led many people to start thinking and believing in natural phenomenon, whereas previously the trend was consider everything the "work of God". In this way he was the first great ...


3

I cannot think of any examples in mediaeval Western Europe. However, the Persian philosopher Muḥammad ibn Zakariyā ar-Rāzī (died 925) taught that all religions (Christianity, Islam etc.) were taught by false prophets who received their revelations from evil spirits. The Greek philosopher Georgios Gemistos Plethon (died ca. 1452) wanted to abolish ...


8

In response to question (1), very much so. You could row the boat, you could pole it, you could have it towed by people or beasts of burden, or if the wind was in your favor, you could sail up the river. Poling and towing, in particular, could be used on any navigable river regardless of how strong the current was.


5

Yes. Punts, Barges and Hulks were poled or towed up river. Here's a book with multiple chapters focused on Southern Northern Europe: Medieval Boat and Ship Finds of Germany, the Low Countries, and Northeast France


7

One reason for this is to connect two pieces of artwork. This is a long section, but I'm going to paste in entirety for context. The images are facing pages from a manuscript known as the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram, or the Golden Book of St. Emmeram. Written for the Carolingian King Charles the Bald about 870, the manuscript contains the four Gospels. ...


2

Following and expanding on from Mike L's comment the short answer will be we don't know. Numbers of armies as quoted in works at or close to the time were often (always?) exaggerated, you know our guys only had 10,000 and the bad guys, they had a 100,000 and we still beat them. Camp followers and townsfolk could also get lumped into the count regardless of ...


2

If you go to an old farm, you may be surprised to find out that a lot of the metal tools in the shed have the metallic part dating back 50 or even older than that without significant degradation other than rust and some chips. The wooden parts however have long been replaced with newer material, and the edge is periodically resharpened. I wouldn't be ...


12

Anywhere between "after first serious use" and "never". Assuming thorough, regular maintenance, a sword can last almost indefinitely - the oldest one I've held that has seen use was about 250 years old and might still be usable, given a good cleaning. The oldest one that I've seen was about 1500 years old and while thoroughy rusty, was worn (indicating ...


3

There are a few reasons for why this happened so early in England. Following the Black Death, there was an increase in surplus labor which could demand more rights and better treatment for their work, including better payment making them soon less dependent on their lords. The Black Death also decreased the people's faith in the Catholic Church. The ...


4

Serfs in England were known as "villeins". By the mid-16th century villeinage had more or less died out because the courts generally refused to enforce the right of return on various grounds starting around 1500. These legal changes occurred gradually. The last significant notice of villeinage was a formal commission by the crown of Queen Elizabeth in 1574 ...



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