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ANOTHER EXPLANATION REGARDING POLAND IS THAT IT HAD A LOT OF JEWS, PARTICULARLY IN URBAN SETTINGS; NOW, WHY WERE Jews Less Affected? And even if Jews died at a lesser rate, it can be attributed to the sanitary practices Jewish law. For instance, Jewish law compels one to wash his or her hands many times throughout the day. In the general medieval world a ...


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Easy in the east Greek culture was known and respected by muslim rulers because they conquered the lands in which it was popular and accessible. Furthermore they were centuries of conflict between the Byzantine Empire and what is nowadays Iran and several muslim adversaries that led to numerous advances and retreats. Thus leaving behind a population of ...


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This would have been different in each individual case. The lord grants lands and protection to the vassal to exchange for obligations and fealty. Just what a vassal got differed from case to case -- the right to the taxes from a mill, a couple of villages, an entire county, whatever. And what the vassal owed was usually roughly in proportion to the fief. ...


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As Bremen is only an example (random, as far as I know) given above, I will answer based on Reval, which was given city rights based on those valid in Lübeck (therefore Lübeck had its place as a court of appeals for any claims against Reval). The situation that applied was that any serf who escaped and lived in the town for a year and one day would be free ...


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The Battle of Kosovo (Serbian: Косовска битка/Kosovska bitka, Turkish: Kosova Meydan Muharebesi) took place on 15 June 1389 between the army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr. The army under Prince Lazar consisted of his own troops, a contingent led by ...


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The Catholic Church, especially in the High Middle ages, was a great aid to science. The Church even founded the modern university system. Physicists of the High Middle ages had such a profound affect on the intellectual atmosphere of Galileo, Newton, et al. that they took their discoveries as common knowledge. Some of the most famous of the pre-Galilean ...


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They used both. On coins often you can find the denomination in Greek, but the date in Roman numerals. As a general rule, all dates and day numbers were in Roman numerals. Also, it was customary for common accounts and ledgers to be kept in Roman numerals. Greek numbers were mostly used in literary contexts, like books on mathematics.


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Europe was small and poor and were behind other civilization of the East the Arabs Muslim empire was stretched from Mauritania today to India. And far east it was the Arabs who control the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean at the time and the wall Sahara trade including the most advanced and civilized country in Europe (Spain) under Muslim it was for this ...


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Frederick II. was in opposition to the popes. Stories presenting him in bad light are nowadays attributed to the popes' propaganda.



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