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First of all, peasants were not slaves or anything like that. They were essentially renting a given lend, and most often than not they came into this relationship volunteerly as free men. In many if not most lands and eras getting free from this relationship was actually possible, and peasants could move to another landlord. After bigger wars or diseases ...


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Asian philosophy is inherently more about personal freedom, Buddhism, The Veda's Taoism, all stress personal freedom. The lack of religious tolerance was and is much more political or economic in nature. When some find the means to control others with a particular religious belief then intolerance sets in as a way to maintain that control. Even ...


2

Your thinking is overly binary. It is very possible, indeed likely, that it was likely a combination of the two plus a few other factors you are forgetting depending on place/time/occasion/society. Other factors in alcohol use: Culture Taste Preservation of foodstuff Others


0

1.Was Chanakya alive and so active during Ashoka's childhood, that he was able to play a second king-making game?- Yes, Chanakya lived till 87 while Chandragupta lived till only 40. 2.Was Bindusar's mother (the Greek Helena) so cruel and hatched a plot to kill him? - Yes. This was a common practice among queens to get the kingdom in favour of thier sons. ...


2

"Race" and "racism" are modern inventions. I have never seen any ancient or medieval writer identifying anybody by race. Actually we can only conjecture to which race some of their personages belonged. The common identifications were by place of birth, religion, social class. And gender, of course (I am not sure what you mean by "sexual identity"). ...


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The growth of literacy was a gradual process, but certainly during the Reformation (1520-1550) literacy grew significantly due to the wider availability of printed materials and proliferation of printing presses, which made books much cheaper. Most education was centered on the monasteries, which were occupied by people known as "friars" (brothers). Friars ...


3

I will address race in the west European middle ages, since identity is just too broad to be answered. First of all it is very important to put yourself in the position of a medieval villein, which is what most people were. They usually did not leave the village where they were born. They would know their immediate family, some of the seigneur's officials, ...


4

So I think these kinds of questions are problematic since they rely on a very specific definition that seems to exclude other traditions. As an easterner I find such claims in Wikipedia that the University is a "European institution par excellence" myopic and rooted in a misguided tradition of them v.s us, rather than seeing world history as one common ...



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