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The battle of Kulikovo is sometimes referred to as the "standing" battle. That is, there was very little actual fighting, mainly a trial of strength. The Russians kept receiving reinforcements, and the Golden Horde forces did not, so the latter "gave up" and retreated. As a result, there would be little archaeological evidence of battle that basically didn't ...


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Topographic bureaus often used to work late at night. There are two reasons for this. One is that they needed to make nighttime observations of the weather and stars. The other is that military attacks and movements often occur at dawn. The bureau is needed to make plans for any movements so it is made to operate at a convenient time for that purpose.


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A modern IT department typically requires its junior members to perform more on-call off-hour shifts than senior members, because the senior members need the face time with other departments that work regular shifts. Although the work performed by the Topographical office may not have been time critical, the time of arriving couriers most certainly would ...


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The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


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Crossbows were "slowfiring" weapons. In this regard, they were less valuable than longbows. The advantage of a crossbow was its accuracy--in skilled hands. In this regard, it didn't take much to be a "random" crossbowman, but it did take a lot to be able to fire a few arrows accurately. That's not too different from a "marksman" or a "sharpshooter" being ...


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It's not a question of "accurate shooting", it's a question of becoming expert in the use and maintenance of a crossbow and connection to an industrial culture for making and repairing them. Real crossbows are quite sophisticated devices and in their time were very expensive. The mercenary corps of crossbowmen were relatively wealthy soldiers who invested ...


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Not exactly about crossbowmen, but I am currently reading about almogavars, another group of specially trained militia of the age, and I think I can extract some ideas. Almogavars were Catalano-Aragonese light infantry, with a special ability for throwing darts (some writers of the era claim they could kill knights). Some points for such specialization ...


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I have been doing a study of military service in Hawkins County, TN. That is in East Tennessee, where sentiments were divided about the War. But in that county, a much lower percentage of men served than in the rest of the South. I started with the 1860 census and identified every white male between 14 and 45--these were the men who would have been in the 18 ...


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You are applying Western mentality to Japan. Samurai means "servant." A samurai's purpose is to serve his lord. Whether anyone fights, child or no, is up to the lord, not up to the child's father. Likewise, the age at which a man might be accepted as a retainer to a lord is purely at the lord's discretion, so there is no fixed answer to your question. If ...


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There are no set ages for participating in combat. Generally speaking however, the first battle for a young samurai was in their early teens, roughly around 15 years old (opportunities permitting). Examples include Hōjō Ujiyasu at Ozawahara in 1530 (15), Takeda Nobukatsu at Temmokuzan in 1582 (15), and Date Masamune against the Sōma clan in 1581 (14). Cases ...


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It was noticed in pre WW2 Germany that the Germans were in fact building stocks of Tanks in their Cavalry HQ in Zossen, south of Berlin. This was also the German HQ during WW2. It is rumoured that a Civil Servant at the time stated that if the Germans could use Cavalry for their Tank crews then the British should to.


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Actually she wasn't able - the Israeli army of that time was quite far from being mighty. It was a more or less hodge-podge assembly of what they could assemble during the British rule and what they could import just after the British left. The thing is (as other replies pointed out) that the invading Arab armies (with the exception of the Arab Legion from ...


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Performance on the battlefield is often about tactical organisation and method, rather than equipment and individual skill. Musketry was on the whole massively ineffective. Prussia had better tactical organisation during the Frederick the Great Period, but relatively short lived, The French were generally better after that. I know Napoleonic period is ...


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The US was never close to reinstating conscription. This is popularly regarded (and probably correctly) to be political suicide for most elected representatives. However, the needs of the American military did push the volunteer recruitment system to its limits. The Army fell short of its recruitment goal by 5,000 people in 2005. The Army adjusted by raising ...


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Since World War 2, US became the strongest military power followed by Soviet Union. Before that, England and Germany were competing for the top position.


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One classical example would be the Battle of Cannae, when Hannibal annihilated a larger Roman army. His unreservedly successful double envelopment on that day have since been regarded as one of the greatest displays of generalship in history. In addition to Cannae, several ancient battles have a reputation for being still studied at military schools ...


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Recorded in Plutarch's De garrulitate, this is an example of a Laconic phrase: After invading Greece and receiving the submission of other key city-states, Philip II of Macedon sent a message to Sparta: "If I invade Laconia you will be destroyed, never to rise again." The Spartan ephors replied with a single word: "If" (αἴκα). Subsequently ...


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This site implies that the redcoat was given a higher allowance of live ball shot than other nation's soldiers, however the source is not state. An Osprey book confirms the figures for the British army though, although there is no information provided for the state of the other armies.


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The English army under Marlborough in the War of the Spanish Secession was of very high quality (1704-1714) and brought Louis XIV to the brink of ruin. The march from the Netherlands to Bavaria to meet the French at Blenheim was a masterstroke of marching and logistics, and they destroyed the army they met in battle. Probably the major reason why is that ...


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The Hessian soldiers (see The Best Armies Money Could Buy) were widely recognized at the time as the most elite in the world (which is why the British hired them). This was because of their discipline, tactics and good use of equipment, not so much their marksmanship. The best shots in the world until quite recently have always been Americans by a long shot ...


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I can address your confusion in latter part at least. According to Maddison, The UK's GDP passed France's sometime between 1700 and 1820 and Spain's by 1700. According to Bairoch, England's GDP passed France's between 1830 and 1840 and was far past Spain's by 1800 (when his numbers start). So at the absolute least, it appears the UK's economy was doing ...


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In Ancient China, the primary method of coordinating units were to use flags, drums and gongs. Beating drums was a signal to advance, whereas ringing gongs was an order to retreat. The use of flags instructed units on the battlefield to move in specific directions. 《吳子‧應變》 凡戰之法,晝以旌旗旛麾為節,夜以金鼓笳笛為節。麾左而左,麾右而右。鼓之則進,金之則止。 (Wuzi, chapter "Reaction") The ...


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Those are a lot of questions! Referenced quotes at the bottom. How could they coordinate such an immense mass of people? Divide up the command. How could they provide the logistics? They brought everything with them and hoped either to resupply from the enemy or not at all (win quickly). These armies had to be separated into smaller armies I ...


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The coming back part, is, IMHO well covered by Tom Au. But the disappearance is due to modernisation of the armies in the 15th Century as well as the appearance of fire-weapons. In the earlier Middle Age, the nobles were equiped with lances and mounted on horses. This lead to the tactical uses of heavy cavalries, which were, e.g., quite effective in the ...



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