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1

Sweden was already trading with Nazi Germany. No need for Hitler to conquer it.


1

Let's make a quick simulation in head, hereby I present a sketch of a realistic scenario: what if they ignore forts: Let's assume Invader decides to ignore forts and let's just capture the capital city (main goal). On week 1 they make wonderful progress, passing by fort 1, 2, 3, 4. The catches are: they have to maintain supply lines through enemy ...


3

While I agree with the other answer givers that you're unlikely to find reliable information on Roman imperial spending budgets, I think we can usefully work back from modern spending figures to show the disparity. For example, below are some of the major spending areas of the United States budget, and a note about Roman equivalence: Social Security is a ...


4

Actually, others had not failed. 30 years earlier Ivan Ashen II had also driven the Mongols out of Bulgaria. The mountainous terrain in the central spine of the country makes it not the best terrain for the Mongol way of warfare, and totally unsuitable for their pastoral way of life. So the country was really only good for them for occasional raiding. The ...


2

He didn't "repel" anything and I doubt Ivaylo defeated any significant Mongolian force. What it says in an article "Les Mongols dans les Balkans" by Gaston Cahen in Revue Historique (T. 146, Fasc. 1, 1924, pp. 55-59) is the following: La Bulgarie, apres les assenides et dans les dernieres annees de constantin, etait partagee entre les factions rivales ...


2

The methodological caveats listed by @Alex are all true. I'd also add that there was no notion of state credit so everything had to be financed out of revenues. And of course, the very notion of what government is responsible for was quite different in antiquity - the ancients were very far from the idea of a welfare state. Perhaps early 19th century England ...


9

First of all, I would not trust Wikipedia numbers about Roman Empire. Roman empire existed for 4 centuries, and the things did not stay unchanged. Second, we have no reliable statistics for most periods. Even the population of the Empire in various periods is not clear, and estimates widely vary. Third, you cannot compare ancient economy with modern economy, ...


5

What you're showing here is a typical "Motte and bailey" style castle that might have originated in the Dark Ages. The Motte being an earthen mound with a keep or donjon on top, and the Bailey being the fortified enclosure around the base of it. The earthen mound is the key bit to the overall structure; easily constructed with unskilled labor it provides a ...


1

York Castle was used as a jail and prison from the 13th century to 1929, so some of the buildings shown in the reconstruction would house holding cells. Also, at least one of the buildings would be used as a law court.


3

Modern vs. medieval: it's a matter of cover. If you're facing someone with a sword or a pike, cover gains you little in the way of protection: an attacker can simply approach, reach around the cover, and stab you. In contrast, height gains you a great deal of protection: it's hard for an attacker standing below to reach you, but you can drop things on ...


4

Yes, most certainly (though not always) - consider Market Garden in September 1944. Market was the airborne drop to take the cities and bridges, and Garden was the relief operation by British XXX Corps spear-headed by the Guards Armoured Division. The British had a penchant for two word operational names, and in this case the two names were easy to keep ...


0

The Death of Ogedei Khan in December of 1241 is the most attributed reason for the discontinuation of the invasion of Europe. Batu, son of Jochi, son of Genghis was the supreme commander over the European assault and a potential candidate for the successor of Ogedei. He knew he was less favorable and probably never going to be great khan so he wanted to ...


35

Good military operation names are picked for these reasons: to deliberately deceive the enemy, to have no association with the operation whatsoever, to raise the morale of the troops, or for political/marketing reasons. The US is big on giving high level operations that will be announced to the public impressive names like "Desert Shield", "Desert Storm", ...


3

Part of the point of these codenames is so that if enemy intelligence gets hold of some of the chatter about the operation, it isn't immediately obvious what the exact objective is. So ideally, yes the names will be completely random.


6

Iwo Jima was a Japanese fortress. It was designed for attrition. First, there were artillery, mortars, and rockets on the foot and slopes of Mount Suribachi. They had walls of reinforced concrete, four feet thick. In addition, they had reinforced steel doors. These were well-protected from bombardment. They were meticulously aimed and when the Americans ...



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