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36

According to this page which cites "Steckel, Richard H. and Roderick Floud (eds.)Health and Welfare during Industrialization Chicago : University of Chicago, 1997" as a source, the average height of a Frenchman between 1800 and 1820 was 164.1 cm. According to the French historian, Marcel Dunan (1963): "If one refers to the Memoirs of Marchand, t. II, ...


13

According to Gary Gagliardi, Napoleon was particularly indebted to Sun Tzu for the combination of "Chang" and Ch'i. That is, the combination of a direct attack, which could be repulsed with difficulty, followed by a "smaller," but more lethal surprise attack that would administer the coup de grace to the enemy. On the other hand, Napoleon apparently paid ...


11

In 1799, Napoleon went from Egypt where his bases were, through modern Israel to Acre (Acco) 1799. In Acre he attempted a siege, lost it, and returned to Egypt. Acre was the Northernmost point he reached in Israel. Napoleon was not in Israel before of after 1799. Other places he passed through in Israel were: Gaza, Jaffa, Haifa, Mount Tabor, River Jordan. ...


11

Considering he escaped from an island prison and re-rallied the country, putting him in the Bastille (in the middle of France) and then leaving and demobilzing your army would quite obviously have been a Bad Idea. As for not executing him...I don't think they could really do that either. His only real "crime" was leading armies against them and losing. If ...


10

Fortunately for Napoleon, not speaking French well was still very common in France in this period. In 1794, only one tenth of the population were fluent in French. The pre-Napoleonic revolutionary government made strides to rectify this by banning all non-Parisian French dialects for official business, but they didn't devote the resources to educate the ...


9

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


8

As far as I know, David's correct - the wargame as we know it today was invented shortly after Napoleon's time by a Prussian man named Reiswitz. Without knowing your source on this, I see three possibilities for Napoleon's wargames: 1) It was something like chess (variations were popular at the time), which could provide the psychological insight you ...


8

Napoleon fled (if that's the right word) in some style, travelling with a "suite" that included three generals, two French counts and countesses and their four children, ten army officers, a doctor, two cooks and 26 other servants along with the imperial dinner service and silver plate and "several boatloads of luggage". So this clearly wasn't act of a ...


7

In addition to Drux's fine answer, Napoleon's ability to evade the British was down to a number of factors but miscommunication by the British played a very large part. When Sir Sidney Smith was assigned to the Levant Squadron, he was also given a diplomatic mission by the British Cabinet. However, this additional role was not communicated to his superiors ...


7

Bonaparte's biographer Vincent Cronin's mentions the British naval blockade but no further preventive countermeasures (that I could find upon brief reconsultation). Perhaps this is because this is a one-volume biography of a (in some ways :) big subject. As to Sidney Smith's role (he is also mentioned in the Wikipedia article), his biographer Tom Pocock ...


7

France was in 1792 attacked by a coalition of states, that included several Italian states. Although the Papal States and Republic of Venice was not amongst them, Naples and Sicily was. This put the Papal States as well as Venice in the middle of the war between Austria and France, since Venice was located between France and Austria and the Papal States ...


6

The short answer to your question is that for much of his early life Napoleon was a Corsican patriot but only a French opportunist. He inherited from his father a fierce love of both Corsica and Pasquale Paoli, and did not consider himself French nor was he particularly loyal to France outside of the fact that it gave him an opportunity to move up in life. ...


5

This quote appears in several mid-1800s texts, including the above-referenced "Sur Le Christianisme" text. Henry Parry Liddon wrote a footnote regarding the quote suggesting its authenticity. He references another Bertrand source, "Sentiment de Napoleon sur la Divinite de Jesus Christ." He cites a response to the author of the preface to Campagnes d'Egypte ...


5

Following-up on @FelixGoldberg's answer I found this in Sources and Notes of Vincent Cronin's Napoleon: The remark attributed to N[apoleon], "I know men, and I tell you that Jesus Christ was not a man" is apocryphal. [Robert-Antoine de] Beauterne, who coined it never met N[apoleon]. This is good enough evidence for me; it suggests the following: ...


5

Napoleon WAS imprisoned. The first time, at Elba, was under "house arrest." Security was lax, and he escaped and started the "100 Days." The British didn't make the same mistake the second time. The venue chosen for his exile was St. Helena Island in the South Atlantic, one of the most isolated places in the world. It is more than 1000 miles from Angola to ...


5

You will have a difficult time convincing me that Napoleon was the best battlefield technician of all time, when he was only the third best French practitioner of that art during the Napoleonic Era; Davout and likely Desaix would head that list. Similarly as a dynastic founder Napoleon's complete ineptitude at diplomacy place him a long ways down that list. ...


4

They are termed camp followers and have followed armies since before Ramses II at Kadesh. Modern armies travel with long tails of official logistical services - cooks, tailors, smiths, armourers, teamsters, nurses, physicians & surgeons, etc. - that in earlier times were provided by civilian camp followers, but wives, children, mistresses and others ...


4

That painting is of Napoleon Bonaparte. He is portrayed with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture, common to the portraits of men from the 18th and 19th centuries. That is pretty much the only reason that can be validified. There are many other theories for why Napoleon often hid his hand (including stomach pain, irritated skin, and more), but the only reason that ...


4

According to Napoleon: His Army and His Generals: Their Unexamples Military Career (Jean Charles Dominique de Lacretelle, Page 382), Napoleon played vingtun "21" (aka Blackjack) and chess when he was being taken into exhile. As a somewhat complex strategy game, it would be a telling example of a general's behavior, though I don't have proof that he played it ...


4

Modern Israel, Egypt, Palestine and Syria were all part of the Ottoman Empire during the time of Napoleon. Under him, the French led an expedition from Malta to Egypt, which later travelled through modern Israel, capturing several port cities on the way. The answer is then yes, Napoleon tried and succeeded in taking a couple of cities in what is modern ...


4

He was probably lucky that he managed to surrender to the British (strictly speaking he claimed political asylum) rather than the Prussians. Even then he had a number of political supporters in Britain that thought imprisonment was a bit severe! "To consign to distant exile and imprisonment a foreign and captive Chief, who, after the abdication of his ...


3

Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage; Minds innocent and quiet take That for an hermitage; To Althea, from Prison Napoleon was imprisoned. He could not travel beyond the confines of the island, nor could anyone visit him. "Prison" isn't defined by the quality of the cell, but by the restrictions on liberties and the ...


3

Napoleon abolished the revolutionary calendar in 1805. It was never very popular. Catholics disliked having their saints' days dropped, and having a day of rest every 10 days instead of every seven probably made it a tough sell. The Cult of the Supreme Being never caught on. Much of France's population remained Catholic during this time, and many of the ...


3

The attribution certainly predates Lenin. A Google Book search indicates that it was well-established by at least 1890: "Wenn Napoleon sagte: »on s'engage et puis on voit!« so bezeichnet er damit nur das Verfahren aller selbstständigeren Heerund Trnppenführer." [Monatshefte für Politik und Wehrmacht, p.284, 1889] "Le mot de Napoléon : « On s'engage ...


3

The referenced page which states that Napoleon required a guarantee from employers that workers wages would remain high. It merely says that "[Napoleon's] police sometimes prevented employers from lowering wages as part of a carefully calculated balancing act". Also, it can be imagined that wars caused a labor shortage which raised wages. (based entirely ...


3

For the most part, France lost all of her Napoleanic territorial gains at the end. By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, concluded after the Hundred Days, France was reduced to her pre-revolution 1790 borders, with the exception of a couple of tiny enclaves surrounded by French territory that they were still allowed to keep. They had been allowed to keep a ...


3

I will try to answer your "original" question in a roundabout way by stating that the period after the Napoleonic wars was "healthier" for France in diplomatic terms. This was true even though France lost back essentially all the territory she gained after the French Revolution. From at least the time of Louis XIV (if not XIII) until the time of Napoleon, ...


2

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


2

Both. First off, address the bias. There is a substantial fraction of historians who think that Napoleon's armpits smelled like air freshener and posies sprung up in his footsteps. They believe that the word "wrong" is defined as "disagrees with Napoleon", and discussing Napoleon's failings is not just an intellectual but also a moral hazard. I'm not fond ...



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