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Topographic bureaus often used to work late at night. There are two reasons for this. One is that they needed to make nighttime observations of the weather and stars. The other is that military attacks and movements often occur at dawn. The bureau is needed to make plans for any movements so it is made to operate at a convenient time for that purpose.


A modern IT department typically requires its junior members to perform more on-call off-hour shifts than senior members, because the senior members need the face time with other departments that work regular shifts. Although the work performed by the Topographical office may not have been time critical, the time of arriving couriers most certainly would ...


The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


I will try to answer your "original" question in a roundabout way by stating that the period after the Napoleonic wars was "healthier" for France in diplomatic terms. This was true even though France lost back essentially all the territory she gained after the French Revolution. From at least the time of Louis XIV (if not XIII) until the time of Napoleon, ...

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