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21

There is a long documentation of the process on Wikipedia which doesn't really answer your question however. It does make it obvious that there are large population groups both in Romania and Moldova opposing a reunification (this group seems larger in Moldova). I think that there is a number of reasons: Despite being closely related, the two countries ...


19

Yes, Bose was welcome in Germany. The Germans could have denied him entry if they wanted to, and so there are no doubts that they were happy to see him in their country. However, Hitler repeatedly refused to issue a declaration supporting India's independence, and this suggests that he personally did not support Bose's cause. It also has to be remembered ...


16

Origins of Pan-Slavism Speaking as a (western) Slav, panslavism was indeed a big topic in 19th century politics. The primary reason for this seems to have been that outside of Russia, most Slavic populations were not in fact in their own nation states, but rather were subjugated by other national groups. This included, for instance, Czechs under Austrian ...


14

First, Belgium wasn't created by uniting the Walloons with the Flemish, but by secession from the Netherlands. This event is known as the Belgian Revolution. According to the linked Wikipedia article, one of the reasons for the revolution was that many future Belgians, even Flemish, "regarded King William I's rule as despotic". Moreover, Belgians are ...


13

This is not a complete answer because your question is actually a huge topic with many possible approaches. Birth is ethnicity My personal view on this is that, long ago, at a time when the nomadic way of life was the rule, nations did not relate to geographical origin but rather to birth. The etymology of various IE languages is very clear on this: ...


13

"Nationalism" as a term in its modern definition Regularly being referred to as an author of remarkable influence on the terms nationality and nationalism in their modern recipation is Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803). In his work Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanity (1784–91), he is at least one of the first to claim that human societies ...


9

The biography of Adam von Trott A Good German by Giles MacDonogh has a chapter on Bose and his involvement with nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s. Trott headed up the India Department within Germany's wartime Foreign Ministry and looked after Bose's 18-month stay in Germany during the war. Bose had visited Germany in 1933 but Hitler refused to see him. ...


9

In the middle ages, Belgium and the Netherlands belonged to an area called the "Low Countries". In 1384 this area came under the dominion of the Dukes of Burgundy, starting what is known as the "Burgundian Netherlands". These domions were merged into the Spanish crown as a result of the political marriage of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I to Mary of ...


9

The swastika symbol was used by many cultures in the history and around the world and not only among Indo-Europeans. For example swastika is used in Far East (China, Korea) as well as the Wyandots (Wendats or Hurons) in North-America. You can find this symbol in ancien greacian poteries as well as decoration in christian churches too... This was often ...


8

At the time nation-states (and in particular France) consolidated themselves, the governance of the German-speaking parts of Europe was based on an older model, small principalities loosely associated in large empires. Consequently, many German thinkers developed a view of the nation as a bound based on ethnicity and, in particular, language and transcending ...


8

Hitler's ultimate motive was 'Upliftment of the Aryan Race'. For this an auxillary goal was making the 'pure' German Nationality walk tall, and be strong. Hitler was not a exactly a German nationalist, he was a Pan German, strifing for uniting the German race. This essentially opposed the rise of sub - nationalism among various states of German ...


7

I think there are three main reasons. First, the elites usually do not want to resign their powers. For example, East Germany leadership opposed the reunification to the end. Historically the elites are much more likely to support secessionism than unification. Second, as Wladimir Palant pointed out, unification with Romania requires abandoning any hope to ...


7

@Relaxed is right to point out that Germany was unified under Prussian, not Austrian hegemony. Prussia’s 1866 military victory over Austria at Koeniggraetz definitively shut out the Austrians. Subsequently, the 1870 war between Prussia and France, with many of the remaining German states outside Austria joining in, led to William I of Prussian being ...


6

These situations were totally common throughout history. Starting from the industrial revolution in Britain which led to numerous concerns in France about their textile industry. I can tell you many other examples. The pre-revolutionary Russian Empire where German industry was seen to dominate over domestic industry. The Cold War era Soviet Union where it ...


6

It wasn't just about the Slavs; people everywhere were feeling this way. It essentially happened because the idea of Nationalism: that people in ethnically, geographically, culturally, and linguistically coherent areas should owe their allegiance only to their own single native governments, became a popular sentiment worldwide. Ethnic nationalism was in ...


5

Jacques Kornberg, in his essay Theodor Herzl: Zionism as Personal Liberation in the book Theodor Herzl: From Europe to Zion writes: Jews were not to make humanitarian or moral appeals; diplomacy was to be based on Realpolitik...Herzl played on exaggerated stereotypes of Jewish power by convoking an international congress of Jews in the clear light of ...


4

Shoes Boeing vs Airbus BAE vs Lockheed Martin Smoot Hawley Fordney-Mccumber - which explicitly aimed to protect US factories. You may also wish to check tariffs on Italian leather shoes - I don't have anything immediately to hand, but the US has traditionally levied tariffs on Italian shoes to protect domestic industry. I believe that Steel was ...


4

If you had been born in 1769, no you probably would not have been familiar with the concept of a National Anthem. At least not until you got quite old. Wikipedia has a nice entry on National Anthems, wherein you will find that they "rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century". Poking around a bit, it looks like the timing is more like the very ...


3

Actually, the oldest national anthem in the world is the Dutch Wilhelmus, which dates back to the Dutch revolutionary war, being composed in 1574, with the text being even older, having been traced back to at the latest 1568. It was not designated as such however until 1932, but had been the de-facto national anthem since that time, including being used on ...


3

The answer to your question depends on what exactly you consider to be an “official” national anthem. However, a case can be made for the priority of “God save the King”, first performed in 1745. Second place probably goes to the Marseillaise, which was officially adopted as the hymn of the French Republic in 1795. In the same year (1795) the great ...


3

Arguably the first national anthem was France's La Marseillaise in 1792. It was the symbol of revolutionary France against the monarchies of Europe. The title was a reference to a detachment of soldiers from Marseilles as they marched into battle. The (translated lyrics) of the first verse exemplify the newly recognized sentiment of "nationalism." ...


3

Advise Dr. Herzl not to take any further steps in his project. I cannot give away a handful of the soil of this land for it is not my own, it is for all the Islamic Nation that fought for the sake of this land and watered it with their blood. The Jews may keep their millions. If the Islamic Caliphate is one day destroyed then they will be able ...


3

As has been noted, the eagle became the national bird because it was chosen to be on the Great Seal, designed by Charles Thomson. The idea did not emerge out of thin air, however; the eagle is a very popular emblem with a very long history in heraldry. Two of the three committees designing the seal included the eagle in some form. Thus, Thomson would have ...


3

Handwaved answer to your first question is that the national identity as a Big Thing likely emerged as a result of a 30-year-war (more specifically, Peace of Westphalia), with nation-state being an efficient unit for maintaining balance of power that the Westphalian system demanded. To quote from Wiki: The edicts agreed upon during the signing of the ...


3

The creation of Belgium STARTED when the (Protestant) Netherlands seceded from the (Catholic_ Spanish Netherlands in the 16th century, reducing it to modern "Belgium," under Hapsburg rule. After the Napoleonic wars, "Belgium" was briefly reunited with the "Netherlands" in a forced "merger" as part of the peace settlement. It was unhappy under Dutch rule, ...


3

The Austro-Hungarian Empire was a polyglot nation of Germans (Oesterreich or "Austria" is German for Eastern Reich), Hungarians, Czechs, Slavs, etc. To Hitler and some other German Austrians, the only part of the country worth mentioning was "Austria," the German part. In his own mind, Hitler was "German" first, and only "Austrian" second. As the German ...


3

As an addendum to @Relaxed's answer, it's worthwhile to point out that Austria actually tried (twice) to annex Bavaria in the late 18th century. These attempts were frustrated by other European powers, chiefly Prussia who actually went to war with Austria over it, the so-called Potato War. Curiously, the only gain that Austria made at the settlement of this ...


2

Thanks for the question. "Civic responsibility" is bound up with the concept of the separation of society (the mass of persons) from the state (the armed body of men, monopolised by the bourgeoisie). (Gramsci). The separation of individual subjectivities from the state apparatus, as if they should be connected, arises in the French revolution with the ...


2

The bald eagle is the symbol of the United States due to its presence on the Great Seal of the United States. The Great Seal was developed by several different Congressionally-appointed committees and went through various design changes. The first appearance of a bird on a proposed design was a phoenix, recommended by William Barton, an expert on heraldry. ...


2

The new Republic of Austria, the German-speaking rump of was left of much larger entity after World War I, was legally prevented from reunification with Germany. Hitler was one of those who opposed the ban, and his committed atrocities in World War II were such that unification can no longer be mentioned in polite society even by today. Yet at the time the ...



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