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The Natives were enslaved, and for quite some time, and by 1616 there were laws in every colony which legalized the enslavement of Natives and outright referred to them as slaves. The only way they managed to get a reputation for being hard to enslave was by being enslaved. From first contact, Natives were enslaved. The enslavement of the Native Americans ...


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One large reason was Pope Paul III. He issued a bull in 1537 stating that American Indians had souls, and forbidding enslaving them except under some very specific circumstances. However, this wouldn't have affected the Protestant colonists, and Catholic ones weren't always very scrupulous about this either. Another issue was that Indians acquired a ...


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As it happens, my sister is an Anthropology professor who specializes in Native Americans, particularly the Osage (and of course is part Osage herself). I'd say that counts as "academia". Here's how she put it in the forward to her last book, Colonial Entanglement: When at all possible, it is certainly best to use specific terms, such as "Osage" or ...



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