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27

Before we get to the numbers it is important to state that the US Navy is really far and away the most capable blue-water navy in the world. The US Navy can project power over the entire planet. I'm not sure why you assert to the contrary in your question. Let's start with the US Navy force size from 1917-1923: TOTAL ACTIVE SHIPS: 342, 774, 752, 567, ...


26

The only landing in Europe and Africa that got carrier support was the Torch landing in North Africa in late 1942. In that case, it was not possible to use land-based air support, since there weren't any bases there. All following landings were within land-based air range (deliberately) and relied on it soley. Aircraft carriers were very valuable, being ...


22

First of all, aircraft carriers are expensive. Russia (compared to USA) was never resource-rich enough to be able to afford the expense; neither was USSR. Second of all, Russia (or rather USSR) had no motivation. USA's main geopolitical goal is to safeguard seabourne trade routes; and to prevent strong competitors from arising and commanding great sets of ...


16

I would date the transition to aircraft carrier domination to the Battle of Midway, in June 1942. The Japanese fought an old style battle in four ship waves. In the first wave as a carrier task force, plus supporting cruisers and battleships, whose main task was to soften up Midway by air bombardment, and then screen the rest of the Japanese fleet. In the ...


16

Arrr, tharr niver has been an orgarrrnization o'pirates in t'traditional sense. Tharr may well ha' been brief alliarrrnces o' convenyence, for when ye can trust a man no to make ye walk the plank, ye may help each other in gathering in the booty! Also now an' then a Cap'n of dark renown might set up his followers as minor cap'ns in their own right, and so ...


15

That would the Battle of Navarino fought during the Greek War for Independence in 1827. It was the last battle feature entirely sail fleets. Navarino is known as Pylos now. Sailing ships have come back into vogue recently so who knows how long they will be around and what was they might be involved in. The last active sailing warship appears to have been the ...


14

Strategically, it didn't make sense to use aircraft carriers in the Atlantic. Any portion of the war that was taking place in the European theater could be reached from air bases already available in that area. The air support for D-Day was pretty considerable as it was. Towards the end of 1942, the US only had two aircraft carriers that were operational. ...


13

In the United States, alcohol rationing was stopped in 1862 by an act of Congress which also prohibited "distilled liquors" from being aboard a vessel, with an exception made for medical supplies. Then Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles issued a general order requiring captains to comply. Two years later, Welles issued another general order requiring ...


12

It wasn't as simple as "13 against 4" as the question states. Russians only had 8 real battleships. 3 were coastal defense Ushakov class battleships. The entire order of battle was significantly less lopsided than the ratio above indicates. Even leaving aside ship quality, the quantity was (from Wiki) | Japan | Russia | ...


12

Battle of Sinop between Ottoman and Russian empires during Crimean war seems to be the last major naval battle with sail-powered ships. There were three steamboats in Russian fleet, and one steam boat in Ottoman fleet, but their firepower was negligible compared to sail-powered ships involed in the battle. It was in 1853, Russian fleet destroyed Ottoman ...


12

Much of the allied airpower used in the invasion was for ground attack and for bombing. The aircraft used for these purposes weren't designed to operate from carriers. Also, the airfields of Southern England were only 25 minutes flying time to Normandy and the allies had so many ground based aircraft, carriers weren't needed.


12

Using Aubrey/Maturin, beefed up with "Naval life in the time of Aubrey and Maturin" type texts: Shock and Awe. Few men died in most naval battles in the age of sail. Morale failure was a key structure in battle. Broadsides significantly reduced the numbers of boarders in a single wave. Three fast broadsides and board was an ideal to secure a prize by ...


11

The original source for the stories you heard is apparently the book "Scorpion Down" by Ed Offley. The book's statements are questionable to say the least and this book review makes a good point. I checked what the Russian sources say about K-129. This 2008 interview with Viktor A. Dygalo, the commander of the division that K-129 belonged to, covers this ...


10

This is a rather long answer outlining the strengths and weaknesses of various nations' midget submarine fleets. If you just want the short answer, skip to the last paragraph. During World War II, the UK, Italy, Germany, and Japan had midget submarines. The US, the USSR, and China did not. The Royal Navy had two main submarines. The X-class submarine was ...


10

In 1861, the US issued an announcement that they were looking for designers to submit plans for an ironclad ship. They did this in response to information they were obtaining indicating that the South had already begun building their own ironclad ships. Realizing that there was no way they could defeat an ironclad navy with their own wooden ships, the US ...


9

Line abreast is sailing side by side, the line being perpendicular to direction of the motion (it's not an exclusively naval term - the formation exists for land forces and aviation as well). ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ | | | | | | | | | | | | Line ahead is a regular naval line of battle - ships sailing head-to-tail in a single line. ---> ...


9

Sea power is not directly about which ship type can beat up which other ship type; it's a matter of being able to run one's merchant ships in an area and preventing the other side from running merchant ships. In WWII, it was difficult for surface ships to protect a convoy from air attack, as we can see from the 1942 attempts to relieve the siege of Malta. ...


9

What animals: Oxen The scheme: Paddle-Wheel Used for warfare: Unlikely ~ (No evidence exists) The first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the 4th–5th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis (chapter XVII) you described, where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle-wheel warship: "Animal power, directed ...


8

While a senior in high school in Oklahoma in March 1943 I enlisted in the Navy in the Navy V-5 program. I was called to active duty on July 1, 1943. I was sent to Central Missouri State Teacher's College in Warrensburg, Missouri. My designation was changed from V-5 to V12A. I assume the "A" might have meant aviation. A semester was of 4 months duration. ...


8

Unlike the Army, where a disproportionate number of officers came from the South, the U.S. navy was pretty much dominated by the North. One evidence of this was the fact that the fleet in Norfolk, Virginia, was scuttled by its sailors to prevent in from falling into the hands of the South. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Monitor A major reason that the ...


8

Britain didn't use their navy because ships don't work on land. You need boots on the ground to exert control. They could have bombed the few coastal cities and fortifications, but it wouldn't have achieved much. It would still be necessary to break the enemy line and posses their territory which the ships couldn't do. All that could be achieved is the ...


7

Encyclopedia Britannica says May 26th As you noted the BBC says May 27th The History Channel says May 26th Admiral Tennant, then Captain Tennant, arrived at Dunkirk on May 26th according to the BBC And, the Worcester News says that Admiral Tennant arrived on May 26th English Heritage has an interactive timeline saying the order was given May 26th, but ...


7

I'm going to answer for oared warships, such as dominated the Mediterranean from early times until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 and afterward. Early warships had, as their primary method of fighting, going alongside each other and fighting hand-to-hand. In this case, the line abreast was the right thing to do, as it would be easy for a line abreast to ...


7

I think that Ihtkwot has answered the first part of your question very well. I'd like to address some of the assumptions in: If so, is this chiefly a reflection of a change in the technology and role of Naval warfare in the last 100 years, chiefly a lessening of the USA's ability to project military power in the world, or a combination? There isn't a ...


7

Turns out it was teak wood. Teak was the preferred would and the red brown color wouldn't be a mahogony stain, but the natural color. As teak is sourced from the Thai/Burma area, Dec. 7th ended the supply chain. Douglas-Fir was substituted on the newer carriers in WWII, and that would have to have been stained and subsequently painted. ...


7

Actually, no... the first submarines used in warfare appeared in the Revolutionary War, and two more were deployed (unsuccessfully) by the US in the War of 1812. 1) No, because they weren't very practical or successful until John Phillip Holland and Electric Boat perfected the battle submarine at the turn of the century. 2) The first modern military ...


7

This source provides a complete list of the RN's vessels in service in September 1939. It lists 113 Modern Destroyers, 68 Old Destroyers, and 54 Corvette Escorts (including 4 Australian and 2 Indian), for a total of 181 destroyers and 54 Escorts. An additional 24 Modern Destroyers were under construction. Additionally, the Royal Canadian Navy included 7 ...


6

Through the course of World War 2; in September 1939 battleships were still considered more important than aircraft carriers, and by VJ Day carriers were considered utterly decisive at sea. This process took a good few steps, however, and really examining it in detail could take an entire book. You also need to consider the application of carrier air power ...


6

Ironclad (and iron-hulled) warships were just beginning to be built when the American civil war broke out. There was no established design for them, and none had been tested in actual battle. This was the beginning of a period of rapid evolution of designs, which culminated 40 years later in the a somewhat standardized form, the dreadnought or battleship. ...


6

Yes, U boats. For a fuller explanation read "Hitler's U Boat War - The Hunters 1939 -1949" by Clay Blair. Below is an excerpt. "One of the convoy escorts, the ex-American four-stack destroyer Montgomery, merely a month out of her overhaul and upgrade, spotted Marcel and attacked with guns and depth charges. The attack was successful; Marcel sank ...



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