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29

Firstly, there is the distinction between inherited versus conferred titles. Inherited titles passed more or less automatically from parent to child, e.g. King, Duke, Baron, Viscount. Conferred titles were granted as rewards for merit -- e.g. knight or as temporary offices -- or powers -- e.g. viceroy (in the stead of the king). Inherited titles were ...


17

This may sound unintuitive, but a new kingdom could not be trivially proclaimed. Calling yourself a king has very little meaning if it isn't recognised by anyone else. For maximum acceptance by your peers and subjects, therefore, your new kingdom had to be properly constituted by the lawful authorities. In the case of Latin Europe during the High Middle ...


16

Yes, the name of the process to which you are referring is subinfeudation. It's important to remember that most people only had a few meaningful things to trade - land, food, fighters, and protection. Feudalism is giving the people above you food and fighters and giving the people below you land and protection. The King was at the top and granted rights ...


13

You don't usually get promoted. You either are or you aren't. Titles are additive. So if you are the Baron of Butterscotch, and the king decides to make you the Duke of Diddlysquat, you don't stop being the Baron, you become both a Baron and a Duke. Medieval titles of nobility are almost always associated with land. The more land, the bigger the title. In ...


12

Nobles don't get promoted, they gain titles Someone may obtain a title 'Duke of Someplace'. If he wasn't a duke before, that event might be treated like a 'promotion'. Do note that it always involves gaining that Someplace together with it - a duke doesn't get more respect than a baron because he has a fancier title; a duke gets respect because he owns a ...


12

The three ecclesiastic electorates; Trier, Cologne, and Mainz have well documented lists of the Archbishop-Electors who served and at what times. The majority of them in the latter period of the Holy Roman Empire are indeed of noble descent. However, John I of Trier is presumably to have been of commoner descent, as stated in this 1881 publication by ...


11

Louis Philippe II the Duke of Orléans, who avidly supported the French Revolution - arguably, the quintessential revolution of the modern era. As First Prince of the Blood, he was one of the most senior members of the ruling Bourbon dynasty. In fact his son would assume the French throne in 1830. I think he qualifies both as a royal and member of the high ...


10

In GENERAL, captured nobles were ransomed. That's because this maximized their value to their captors. One notable exception was the battle of Agincourt, in 1415, during the 100 years' war. At one point, the French lines approached the English prison camp, and King Henry V feared that the prisoners would not only be released, but re-armed, and take the ...


10

They couldn't! All titles were bestowed by the sovereign, you couldn't just say "Oh, I've got a spare earldom etc I don't want, I'll give it to a friend." Apart from any other consideration, your eldest son would be deeply peeved, because he would expect to inherit it! Also, titles were not attached to land in quite the way the question suggests. When ...


9

As T.E.D. already mentioned, titles were tied to the territory, and mostly didn't change unless a feudal lord higher up in the "foodchain" granted one of its vassals a higher title (it usually came with further land and possessions as well). Also, once you fulfilled certain requirements to create a title, you could do so (great example, the British Empire, ...


9

This question Did an English Duke ever grant away an Earldom that he held?" generated so much confusion, including references to courtesy titles and European practice, that I decided to contact the experts on British peerage at the House of Lords. I received a reply from the Assistant Registrar of the Peerage and Baronetage, which he has kindly permitted me ...


8

The Reign of Terror resulted in an estimated 40,000 executions, primarily landed nobility, courtiers and clergy. Many upper class French emigrated to other countries. A typical example is that of Pierre du Pont, founder of the chemical company E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Being a member of the lesser nobility, the revolution never got around to ...


8

If you're interested enough to read a whole book, this looks like the one (the new price is ridiculous but there seem to be several used editions for a reasonable amount). Alternatively, here's an online article that describes the development of cigarettes in America, which I think sheds a fair amount of light on your question. Essentially, tobacco ...


7

Appanage Cadet branches arise under the system of Primogeniture when a younger son receives appanage and manages to establish it as a power base to his own line. Note that the "line" here is not an independent royal line, it is a line of (senior) vassals to the main royal line. If the main line dies out, the cadet line will claim the throne, but otherwise ...


7

So your fantasy is about about a common man obtaining a title by marrying into a noble family? To my best knowledge the chances of this happening are slim. What is more likely is that the woman (or at least her children) will lose her title. As cases in points in recent history, consider Alfonso Díez Carabantes (the third husband of the Duchess of Alba and ...


7

Firstly, I think you may be getting a little confused between life peers and hereditary peers. Life peers are given a peerage or title for their lifetime only. It is not hereditary and it cannot be handed down to their children. When that person dies, the peerage or title dies with them. They are not expected to maintain a country estate or multiple ...


6

I do not dispute the other answers, but I did want to point out that George Robinson, Earl de Grey, was raised to the 1st Marquis Ripon as a result of his success in negotiating the Treaty of Washington, which ended the US/British conflict over the (American) civil war. The British were in a precarious position because of the Alabama claims. Had events ...


6

During the preparation of the royal wedding between The Royal Heiress to the Swedish throne and a commoner, people talked about heraldry and the possibility that a new royal house will emerge. But this changed when The Royal Household afirmed that the commener Westling will change and add his surname into The Royal Family name.


6

First, I am assuming that you are giving your fantasy world a "Western European" flavour. Working from this assumption there are still a myriad details that vary from nation to nation within Western Europe, but in general the two houses are allied, but the offspring only marshall the coat of arms; the husband and wife are each only entitled to their own ...


5

I cannot offer definite proof right now, but I'm almost certain (von) Mises was an Austrian citizen at least sometimes before his forced emigration to Switzerland. Consider e.g. this: He was working for the national chamber of commerce and consulting for the Austrian government. Such roles are usually filled by citizens even today. Lots of people kept ...


5

Noble prisoners captured by other nobles would be held by them - in the proper manner- which frequently got so long and expensive the nobleman lost out on the deal. Since ultimately they belonged to the king, who in the 15th Century would be leading the army in the field, the noble would have to pay a fee to the king to keep them - essentially a cut. Or ...


5

@NL7 has offered a fantastic answer, but I'd like to add one thing. Allocation of land was not "rational" - inheritance was complicated and it is entirely possible for a noble to have multiple non-contiguous parcels of land. It is entirely possible that a noble could inherit several strips of land that surround or enclose another noble's land.


4

In one unusual circumstance, when the Count von Bohlen married Bertha Krupp (of the Krupp arms house), the man (von Bohlen) was asked by the Kaiser to add his wife's surname, Krupp, to his own. They became the Krupp von Bohlens. This was true, even though as a member of the nobility, von Bohlen technically outranked his (commoner) wife. But the name ...


4

Neither, really. The Zhou Dynasty classed its vassals into five ranks, 公 侯 伯 子 男, which are usually translated into English as Duke, Marquis, Count, Viscount and Baron. The State of Lu held a rank of Marquis (侯). Accordingly, its rulers are properly referred to as Marquis of Lu (魯侯). For example, Marquis Xi of Lu (魯侯戲) whose given name was Xi. However, ...


4

In the church of Rome there was no contradiction between being both a member of the church and being titled. In fact, some entire states were ruled by priests. For example, the Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent principality for centuries right in the middle of Europe which was ruled by an archbishop who was inevitably from some noble family. The ...


4

In the old days (meaning pre-Tudor times) the land of Britain was divided into parts each assigned to a man bound to the king by oaths of fealty and often blood ties in one way or another. Such men were responsible for supplying the king with soldiers, if need be, and themselves serving as knights. These men were generally known by the name of the land to ...


4

Brenhin Pennaf - the high king, supreme king Brenhin - king Pendeuic - duke Arglwyd - baron or landed lord Canghellor - governor Deleyr - mayor or count, a local chief Hyneyw - a royal counselor Tywysog - a noble Note that all of these words have lots of different spellings. A king may be "brennin" or "brennan" or "vrenhin" or many other spellings.


4

The crusaders were trying to create the kingdom of Jerusalem by conquering the holy lands from the Muslims. All the small states they setup on the way were part of the one big Jerusalem kingdom. The wiki actually has an article about this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vassals_of_the_Kingdom_of_Jerusalem If Baldwin made himself king of somewhere else, it ...


4

In England, as I understand it, a cadet branch of a house is simply descendants of sons after the first. They can be, and sometimes were, given peerages themselves. Let's take a look at one notable cadet branch. If we start with Edward III Plantagenet, the King of England from 25th January 1327 until his death in 1377 there is a very good example of a Cadet ...


3

The Catherine of Taranto article you mention refers to the Orsini article, which shows the Orsini coat of arms: See the references and links at the bottom of the page. Rely on the sources rather than Wikipedia in this case. Update: This article on François Guillaume de Castelnau de Clermont-Lodève, Archbishop of Narbonne, appears relevant. He was born ...



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