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In England the the Parliamentarians' New Model Army of 1645 was arguably the first state army, not controlled by the monarch or nobility. It comprised mainly professional full-time soldiers rather than a casual militia.


Nobles were required to provide troops and arms, and be skilled in their command and supply - this was far more important than their combat abilities, and why noblemen had so much power, wealth and prestige. What happened was the emergence of the modern standing army in the fifteenth century, notably the Ottoman Janissaries and the unorthodox army led by ...


For centuries in the Middle Ages, in many regions of Europe there were not kings, but dukes, archdukes, etc. For instance, in Italy one had the Archduke of Tuscany and the Duke of Piedmont (until 1720) or the Duke (Doge) of Venice, etc. They were completely autonomous entities, but they were not kings. Apparently in some cases, this mattered a lot: the ...


Very few lords decreed that their lands were now kingdoms, because most lordships in Europe were part of kingdoms. There were very few counties, duchies, or lordships in Europe that were not already parts of kingdoms. Even though the overlordship of the king in question might have been very vague, weak, or theoretical, it was legal and customary. So if a ...

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