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The Norman kingdom in South Italy was certainly not a papal project. On the contrary, the popes tried to oppose the growing Norman power, by diplomatic and military means. Matters came to a particular head in 1053 in the battle of Civitate where the Normans defeated the Pope's army and took him prisoner. But eventually, when the papacy realized the Normans ...


8

As "Vikings," the Normans were good SHIP builders. Once they reached land, it wasn't much of a stretch for them to transfer their skills to building churches and other buildings. The Normans adopted a style of architecture that is known as "Romanesque." It was originated by the Romans, but later imitated by many west Europeans, chief among them the Normans. ...


5

The original chronicle was The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy by Ordericus Vitalis (or Orderic Vitalis), volume III, translated by Thomas Forester. It can be found here. William of Malmesbury is also mentioned the story in his Gesta regum Anglorum, found here The accounts by Vitalis and Malmesbury are basically the same as you described: ...


4

I have found this passage in Runciman's A History of the Crusades: In 1040 six brothers [...] took control of the city of Melfi [...]. [...] Henry III supported them in order to gain control on the region that he contended with the Eastern Empire. The German Pope, that he had elected, did the same, as he was scorned that the Eastern Patriarch had ...



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