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16

On the topic of the Aztecs, an intriguing book on this subject is Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control, by Ross Hassig. The Aztecs were an extremely war-like civilization, that were constantly attacking and subjugating their neighbors. Interestingly, though, their style of warfare was quite different from what we are familiar with from ...


13

The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 established a clear border between American and Russian lands on the West Coast as well as trade. It gave Russian claims south of parallel 54°40′ north to the US. Russia was inclined to give away this territory, which was in dispute between them, Britain, America and Spain, to insure their undisputed and ongoing ownership ...


11

One reason was that the "Anglos" brought their own women with them. For instance, there were women passengers on the Mayflower. And twelve years after the settlement at Jamestown, there was a boatload of women (in 1619), followed by many more. The Spaniards also had more "multicultural" dealings, as noted in the comments above. The Spanish religious ...


11

If you are talking about the Omelc/Aztec/Maya, at war with the Cree or Inuits, I very much doubt this ever happened, as, 1) They had no quarrel, and so, no reason to go to war. 2) They had no way of marching across the USA, according to my Google Earth measurements, the distance from New York/New Jersey to Honduras, is 4,000 km. An average human can walk 5 ...


10

To combat the KKK and other groups, the North placed the South under martial law. They pushed through legislation while the Southern states had no representation in Congress permanently freeing the slaves and giving them voting rights. Then an occupation force was sent to enforce it, since this was pretty much unpopular with everyone, not just the Klan. ...


9

Australian cultures did not have access to good starter crops. This is explored at depth in an allo-history available here: http://alternatehistory.net/discussion/showthread.php?t=110941 on the topic of what crops could have been good starter crops. Indigenous Australian cultures were highly developed, including development of aquacultural structures and ...


9

Yes, your suspicion is correct. Once man had boats (no later than 40,000 years ago) and the ability to live in the arctic, the island chains strung across the Bering Straight could not have been a significant barrier. There are native peoples who traverse it regularly today using native methods. As for evidence, archeologically we know about the Thule ...


8

Given the area you are choosing to encompass (I'm assuming Florida and perhaps the swamplands of neighboring states), I'd go with an Alligator. That's an animal that today is ubiquitous throughout the peninsula of Florida, and in the southern swampy parts of bordering states. If you wanted to go with more traditional communist iconography, I'd consider ...


7

The earliest recorded example of bacteriological warfare seems to be the Hittite plague (1715 BC): A long-lasting epidemic that plagued the Eastern Mediterranean in the 14th century BC was traced back to a focus in Canaan along the Arwad-Euphrates trading route. The symptoms, mode of infection, and geographical area, identified the agent as Francisella ...


6

The Romanian way is historically slightly older: it is like a style thst was common in the United States around the 1700s-1800s. The current USA style is an elaborated 1900s descendant of that earlier style ... But even that earlier style, itself, descends from an even simpler style that was used in the earliest published textbooks about handwriting, during ...


6

Here's one example: The dutch colony of New Amsterdam (on Manhattan Island, it's New York now) was captured by four English frigates sailing into its harbour. The British are on the other side of this one, but the point stands. Here's one out of the time scale but the Battle of Nassau deserves a mention as the US marines' first amphibious landing.


6

For contact between the inhabitants of present-day United States and present-day Mexico, you can also see the Wikipedia article on Chichimeca, the commonly used name for the peoples that lived to the north of the Aztecs. It appears not much is known about them. The map posted in another answer is beautiful and very informative, but we should remember that ...


6

I recently read a book, Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture that purports to challenge the foot traffic in two ways - first that ancient peoples were far more handy on boats than current thought, so a foot path isn't needed for them to spread, and second that evidence for passage from the Bering area is fairly thin in the period where ...


5

Don't confuse the concepts of incorporated city, which has more to do with state statutes and regulations in regard to municipal consolidation, with metropolitan area, the true size of the municipal economic entity. The least biased statistical evaluation of municipal areas I could find for the U.S. is The List of Combined Statistical Areas (2010 Census) ...


5

Unfortunately, KKK activity was not regarding as violating any laws of the South. To better understand the South, I believe Eugene D. Genovese Roll Jordan Roll would be a great start. Eric Foner's Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War could be helpful too to see how hard it was for the Federal government ...


5

Although the Convention of 1818 and the subsequent 1846 Oregon Treaty might be considered here, these both predate the establishment of a true Canadian Government. Hence I think the following Acts and acts of the post-1867 Government and people of Canada best answer the question: Purchase of Rupert's Land in 1869 from the Hudson's Bay Company and the ...


5

What I'm seeing there for good attestations are the following: In Irish folklore, a Jack-o'-lantern appears to have been the same as what was called a will-o'-the-wisp in English folklore. In other words, ignited swamp gas visible at night, with lots of creative folklore built up around it. This is attested to as known folklore before we know of the term ...


4

Overall, the primary reason the "status quo" was maintained was the availability of upward mobility and the level of political and economic freedom. Restrictions placed on these freedoms by the British Crown led to the Revolution. The thing is that in Colonial America it was easy for a man to own land, thus showing an "interest" in colony and giving them ...


4

Interracial marriage is not so uncommon. Probably the absence of same-race women played a role, but Portuguese were also well known to marry local wives in Africa, while British and French people usually didn't The fact that Portuguese and Spaniards have a multirracial origin (arab, celtic, roman, goth) might also have some influence.


4

There is the obvious geo-political gain of weakening their British enemies, who had seen such expansion in that theatre during the seven year war. Come the next war (Napoleonic, yes, unfortunately not so much of a gain for the Bourbons) the United states offered both trade to France and co-belligerency (1812 war). However, I get the feeling France expected ...


4

OK, now that the question is a bit more general I can attempt a brief answer - sorry for mainly citing Wikipedia, from where I am sure you can find better sources if you want to. First, the Hammer and sickle were "conceived during the Russian Revolution". Hence, you might not want to use them if your point of departure is 1898. The article Symbols of ...


4

I haven't been able to find any data on the known crash locations of any of the bombers lost. I have found a website that list's most of the bombers included in the raid, and looking on the Wikipedia articles goes some way towards making the list look genuine (as the squadrons listed did take part in the raid, according to wikipedia). However, to find more ...


4

Roger Williams was from London, John Clarke was from Suffolk, Ezekiel Holliman was from Hertfordshire... so, generally, the preachers from the first three Baptist churches in the Americas came from the Southeast of England, but that doesn't tell the story. None was a Baptist when they came over to the New World - Williams, Clarke and Holliman converted each ...


3

Have you tried any circus libraries? Milner Library at Illinois State University has one of the world's largest circus collections in their Special Collections and Rare Books Room. I don't know if they would have a floor plan, but it might be worth asking their librarian. If they do, they may be able to make you a scan depending on the condition of the map. ...


3

France in the 18th century often didn't seem to press its advantages at the negotiating table. The most notable example came after the War of the Austrian Succession (1744-48), when France gave back the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium) to Austria even though it had conquered it, and conquering Belgium had been a long-time goal of France's. Apparently ...


3

The general war was actually between Great Britain on one side, and France, Spain, the Netherlands, and the new United States on the other. However, only the French were acting as direct USA allies. (The Spanish, for obvious reasons, weren't real keen on the idea of helping colonies in the Americas revolt). If this sounds complicated, it was, and the treaty ...


3

I think you need to start reading social histories about "mob" studies. Oliver Bringing the Crowd back in, 1985 is an example of crowd studies. Understanding the capacities of the paid and unpaid (slave) American pre-working class, the position of small farmers, and small shop keepers is important. (DOI: 10.1080/03071027808567427 ; DOI: ...


3

According to wikipedia, the current title for the earliest documented use would be the Hittites with the bacterial disease Tularemia in the mid second millenium BC. According to the texts, infected people were sent into enemy territory to help spread the plague there.


3

Quite simple. The Erie Canal via the Hudson River to the Great Lakes gave New York access to a much larger hinterland. Boston has the Charles River and not much else.



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