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14

Translation of Qu'ran was always problematic question in Islamic theology. In Islamic world there is doctrine called I'jaz that holds that Qu'ran is miraculous, both in content and in form and that no human speech can match. According to I'jaz Muslims oppose to text from Qu'ran be reproduced in another language or speech. Also there are some words which have ...


14

The leading people of the Ottoman empire were no Arabs, but from Turkish tribes. They speak a variety of the Turkish language (Ottoman Turkish). Turkish is its own Language family, Arab belongs to the Afro-Asiatic/Semitic Language family. Big areas of the empire were Arab, but there where also big non-Arab area and peoples (Greece, Albania, the former ...


9

Wikipedia has a pretty comprehensive list of the names used for the Ottoman Empire at different periods and in various languages. At the end of the article there's also a chronological list of links to historic maps using the alternative names of the Ottoman Empire. Since you are mostly interested in diplomacy and official writing, I also looked for a few ...


9

There were many reasons for an invasion: punishing Naples for its support of the Knights of Rhodes, whom the king Ferdinand I of Naples sent two ships of reinforcements against the Turks, determining a burning defeat of the Ottomans creating a bridgehead for further operations in Italy, against Naples and possibly Rome (we have to keep in mind that the ...


8

The question asked seems to presuppose that the Ottoman empire was a source of intellectual and technological progress in the Middle Ages and explicitly states that the Christian religion hindered intellectual progress in the West. This looks wrong to me on all counts. Turkish power only rose in the 14th century, at the very end of the Middle Ages, and the ...


8

The Dardanelles campaign was as much about resupplying Russia as knocking the Ottoman Empire out of the war by taking the capital, Istanbul. It's also easy to say in retrospect that not enough soldiers and ships were sent to that theatre, but at the time the commanders evidently thought they had enough. Calling the effort "half-baked" only makes sense with ...


8

Vienna was besieged in 1683. In the Treaty of Bakhchisarai, Russia agreed not to fight Ottoman Empire for the time between 1681 and 1701, and actually kept the promise... until 1686 that is. Then it joined the European coalition and started Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700), which it won, gaining Azov and Taganrog. Both were lost soon in 1711, Azov re-taken by ...


7

The answer is yes. While both the strength of fortifications and terrible mistakes from the Ottomans (I would also count the great determination and strategy of defenders as a third condition) played a highly important role, during the siege, Hospitallers used also a kind of defensive weapons that were unavailable to any other forces of their times. I ...


6

There were two Dardanelles campaigns during WWI. The first one, in 1914, was to try to secure them as fast as possible, but a German fleet as well as turkish guns made it too hard. A second campaign, the so-called Gallipoli campaign, was a real fiasco, but it's primary objective was to "create a diversion", or a second front to help the Russians (that's ...


6

Funny story, that. It all starts with the Suez Canal. Shipping things between the far east and Europe the long way around Africa was certainly doable, but very very time-consuming and expensive. Once built, the canal was half owned by the French and half owned by Egypt. However, Egypt's finances were your typical third world despotic mess, so in 1875 the ...


6

From 1516 to 1917 it was Ottoman money, named gold liran asmali. To be specific, from 1807 to 1918 they used a different Ottoman currency named tamashlik,onlic,sikwin. In 1914 when the Ottomans lost in WWI, French Liran gold became prevalent. In 1917/11/23 the British announced that Egyptian money was legal, as well as Ottoman, and any money from allies. ...


6

Massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire goes back to at least 1894, but they increased during WWI. What is referred to as the Armenian Genocide is however sometimes limited to the events that happened during the mass deportation of Armenians in 1915-1916. The deportations ended in March 1916, and this ended the main part of the Armenian genocide, but ...


5

There was at least two: Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, 1790 and Ibrahim Edhem Pasha, 1877-1878. Source


5

Suleiman the Magnificent died a year after the Great Siege and was succeeded by Selim II. The change in leadership also brought a change of focus. Selim decided to move against the equally strategically positioned Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The War of Cyprus started only five years after the Great Siege, and although the Ottomans ultimately prevailed, ...


5

You are badly confusing rate of progress with state of knowledge. Yes, the Turks in the Middle Ages had greater technological prowess than Europeans, but they were already woefully under-achieving in terms of progress. The origins for this state of affairs lies in the different progressions of collapse of the Roman Empire in the West and the East. In the ...


4

The first ever verse of Qu'ran is: Read (commencing) with the Name of Allah, Who has created (everything) The first word being "read", I guess whomever is making it easy for people to "read" Qu'ran is not doing something illegal.


3

I appended the clause "but to a different degree" to your statement "The Ottomans' also had politics mixed with religion." And therein lies the heart of the issue. The Ottomans were "somewhat," although not totally tolerant of other religions. That is to say that the degree of religious intolerance, and its related drag on progress was "much less" in the ...


3

Jacques Kornberg, in his essay Theodor Herzl: Zionism as Personal Liberation in the book Theodor Herzl: From Europe to Zion writes: Jews were not to make humanitarian or moral appeals; diplomacy was to be based on Realpolitik...Herzl played on exaggerated stereotypes of Jewish power by convoking an international congress of Jews in the clear light of ...


3

During the 18th and beginning of 19th centuries the Deys of Algiers made a series of treaties with European seafaring nations. Each of the European states would deliver yearly “gifts” in order to secure free passage of their ships. Otherwise, the corsairs of the North African states would capture whatever they could of ships: seize the cargoes and ships, and ...


3

Tuscany had a military alliance and family ties with the Habsburg empire - at the time, Fakhr-al-Din was plotting to break free of Ottoman rule, and the Ottoman Empire was a longstanding enemy of the Austrians. He had hoped to enlist the aid of European powers like Austria and Spain, and was ready to hand over concessions in the holy land to get it - he was ...


2

Remember that just a year before Battle of Vienna, tsar Feodor Alexeyevich passed away, what resulted with Moscow Uprising of 1682. In result, all the power was gained by Sophia Alekseyevna, who became the regent of Russia. The future tsar, Peter the Great, was only 10 years old. Following the uprising, the internal situation of Russia was very unstable, ...


2

In 1882, Ahmed Urabi, an Egyptian general, led a rebellion against the Egyptian Khedive, a viceroy to the Ottoman Empire, as at the time Egypt was an Ottoman vassal. The British had strong interests in Egypt, due to among many other things, the Suez Canal, and so, supported the Khedive. At about this time, the Khedive asked the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire ...


2

There seem to be at least two sources of the Ottoman crescent, none of them related to Islam. 1) The standard of the Kayihan Khanate, founded by Osman Gazi (Osman I) in western Anatolia. It is said the symbol on the standard goes back to the seal or tamgha of the ancestral Kayi tribe. 2) The crescent and the star of Byzantion (later Constantinople). Here ...


1

The current Wikipedia entry for the Yue-chi depicts them as being mostly friendly trading partners with the Chinese. The (likely Turkish) Xiongnu empire built by the victorious Modu Chanyu (aka: Mete Khan, or "Brave Khan" in Turkish), was anything but. It wouldn't be too surprising to find that histories sourced mostly from the victorious Turks are a bit ...


1

According to the link in the question: "This attack provided France and the United Kingdom with the justification for declaring war on Russia in early 1854 in support of the Ottoman Empire." Basically, the British ambassador wanted the Turks to lose the battle so that Britain would have an excuse for getting into the war. At the time, Russia was far ...


1

Why did religion mixed with politics hold back progress of Europeans but not the Turks? Religion didn't hold back European science (much), but something did. Something being the opposite of nothing. Nothing being zero. The Arabs/etc had more advanced mathematics based on the number 0. This allowed them to work out all their other advances faster than ...


1

See here: Conflict thesis The conflict thesis is the proposition that there is an intrinsic intellectual conflict between religion and science and that the relationship between religion and science inevitably leads to public hostility. Although the thesis, in its contemporary form, remains generally popular, the original form of the thesis is no ...


1

Why Tuscaky of all places? In 1608 in Aleppo Fakhr-al-Din had signed a treaty with the Medici's Tuscany envoyees in Aleppo, so it was the Medici who seeked him first. In 1613 he had already started to struggle for independance from the Ottoman empire and he was at great risk. So he fled to Tuscany where he was welcome in Florence by Cosimo II who hosted him ...


1

The short answer is: no. Egypt formally became a British protectorate only in 1914, but de facto already in 1882. It's all (briefly) told here.



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