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17

The leading people of the Ottoman empire were no Arabs, but from Turkish tribes. They speak a variety of the Turkish language (Ottoman Turkish). Turkish is its own Language family, Arab belongs to the Afro-Asiatic/Semitic Language family. Big areas of the empire were Arab, but there where also big non-Arab area and peoples (Greece, Albania, the former ...


15

Massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire goes back to at least 1894, but they increased during WWI. What is referred to as the Armenian Genocide is however sometimes limited to the events that happened during the mass deportation of Armenians in 1915-1916. The deportations ended in March 1916, and this ended the main part of the Armenian genocide, but ...


15

Translation of Qu'ran was always problematic question in Islamic theology. In Islamic world there is doctrine called I'jaz that holds that Qu'ran is miraculous, both in content and in form and that no human speech can match. According to I'jaz Muslims oppose to text from Qu'ran be reproduced in another language or speech. Also there are some words which have ...


12

To put it simply, the Ottomans did invade Morocco multiple times, and they were also allies with various Moroccan Dynasties too. The relations boil down to rivaling Dynasties in Morocco in the 16th Century, with the pro-Ottoman Saadians dynasty in the south and the Fez backed Wattassid dynasty in the north. A series of wars were fought between the dynasties ...


11

Wikipedia has a pretty comprehensive list of the names used for the Ottoman Empire at different periods and in various languages. At the end of the article there's also a chronological list of links to historic maps using the alternative names of the Ottoman Empire. Since you are mostly interested in diplomacy and official writing, I also looked for a few ...


11

Funny story, that. It all starts with the Suez Canal. Shipping things between the far east and Europe the long way around Africa was certainly doable, but very very time-consuming and expensive. Once built, the canal was half owned by the French and half owned by Egypt. However, Egypt's finances were your typical third world despotic mess, so in 1875 the ...


10

The question asked seems to presuppose that the Ottoman empire was a source of intellectual and technological progress in the Middle Ages and explicitly states that the Christian religion hindered intellectual progress in the West. This looks wrong to me on all counts. Turkish power only rose in the 14th century, at the very end of the Middle Ages, and the ...


10

A small edit to put this answer into a broader perspective. In a broader perspective, French acquired the status of lingua franca amongst the European powers in the areas of commerce, science and international politics somewhere in the seventeenth century, and arguably did not relinquish this status until the early twentieth (in favour of English). Now, in ...


9

Vienna was besieged in 1683. In the Treaty of Bakhchisarai, Russia agreed not to fight Ottoman Empire for the time between 1681 and 1701, and actually kept the promise... until 1686 that is. Then it joined the European coalition and started Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700), which it won, gaining Azov and Taganrog. Both were lost soon in 1711, Azov re-taken by ...


9

There were many reasons for an invasion: punishing Naples for its support of the Knights of Rhodes, whom the king Ferdinand I of Naples sent two ships of reinforcements against the Turks, determining a burning defeat of the Ottomans creating a bridgehead for further operations in Italy, against Naples and possibly Rome (we have to keep in mind that the ...


9

The Dardanelles campaign was as much about resupplying Russia as knocking the Ottoman Empire out of the war by taking the capital, Istanbul. It's also easy to say in retrospect that not enough soldiers and ships were sent to that theatre, but at the time the commanders evidently thought they had enough. Calling the effort "half-baked" only makes sense with ...


8

There was a certain amount of natural antagonism between the west and the Byzantines. Part of this was religious: They belonged to different sects of Christianity, and thus often viewed each other as little better than heretics or Muslims. Another part was commercial. What little commerce the west had was in direct competition with the Byzantines, whose ...


8

Unlike a city wall, that has people always around it to man and guard it, a free standing border wall tends to get stripped of manpower whenever the attention of the state building it falters. An unmanned wall isn't hard to get around, or over. I've even read that some believe the main task of these border fences is less to hold invaders out, than to keep ...


7

The answer is yes. While both the strength of fortifications and terrible mistakes from the Ottomans (I would also count the great determination and strategy of defenders as a third condition) played a highly important role, during the siege, Hospitallers used also a kind of defensive weapons that were unavailable to any other forces of their times. I ...


7

There were two Dardanelles campaigns during WWI. The first one, in 1914, was to try to secure them as fast as possible, but a German fleet as well as turkish guns made it too hard. A second campaign, the so-called Gallipoli campaign, was a real fiasco, but it's primary objective was to "create a diversion", or a second front to help the Russians (that's ...


7

There was at least two: Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha, 1790 and Ibrahim Edhem Pasha, 1877-1878. Source


7

During the time period from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 until it's dissolution in 1918, the Ottoman Empire was pre-occupied with the Balkans, Middle East, and North-East Africa. During the height of the Age of Exploration the Ottoman Empire was very successfully expanding into the Balkans, besieging Vienna in 1529 under Suleiman the Magnificent and ...


6

Suleiman the Magnificent died a year after the Great Siege and was succeeded by Selim II. The change in leadership also brought a change of focus. Selim decided to move against the equally strategically positioned Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The War of Cyprus started only five years after the Great Siege, and although the Ottomans ultimately prevailed, ...


6

Jacques Kornberg, in his essay Theodor Herzl: Zionism as Personal Liberation in the book Theodor Herzl: From Europe to Zion writes: Jews were not to make humanitarian or moral appeals; diplomacy was to be based on Realpolitik...Herzl played on exaggerated stereotypes of Jewish power by convoking an international congress of Jews in the clear light of day,...


6

You are badly confusing rate of progress with state of knowledge. Yes, the Turks in the Middle Ages had greater technological prowess than Europeans, but they were already woefully under-achieving in terms of progress. The origins for this state of affairs lies in the different progressions of collapse of the Roman Empire in the West and the East. In the ...


6

From 1516 to 1917 it was Ottoman money, named gold liran asmali. To be specific, from 1807 to 1918 they used a different Ottoman currency named tamashlik,onlic,sikwin. In 1914 when the Ottomans lost in WWI, French Liran gold became prevalent. In 1917/11/23 the British announced that Egyptian money was legal, as well as Ottoman, and any money from allies. ...


6

Please keep in mind that the IVth Crusade mentioned in the first answer has resulted in taking of Constantinople by mostly Venician troops in 1204. This has resulted in a long-lasting civil war between the Latins and the Byzantines. Finally Constantinople was taken back by the Byzantines in 1261, but the Empire did not regain all its territory and wealth. ...


5

The Second Balkan War was an unfortunate, but natural continuation of the First Balkan War mostly due to the newly liberated (current border) regions with mixed population and due to the strong influence of the European Great Powers, i.e. United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary which were struggling to establish and realize their strategic interests ...


5

The first ever verse of Qu'ran is: Read (commencing) with the Name of Allah, Who has created (everything) The first word being "read", I guess whomever is making it easy for people to "read" Qu'ran is not doing something illegal.


5

The Fall of Constantinople had a negligible effect on the launching of the Age of Discovery, school textbooks notwithstanding. It was well under way a generation earlier, due to the perfection of the caravel in Portugal under Prince Henry the Navigator and the explorations he launched down the coast of Africa. The Madeira Islands had been rediscovered in ...


5

You must remember that (in example of Serbia) during Ottoman Empire, late 19th century country was mostly dotted with villages, town population were small. Here is one example of game played in villages: http://www.srbijuvolimo.rs/media/k2/items/cache/7c7c638ef981276293e3733a3f885395_L.jpg Game looks somehow like modern football game, but rules were ...


5

Greek fire was used in naval warfare, a way to damage enemy ships. The land sieges were ineffective in both cases. In 1453 the Greeks had no navy, and not enough men to man the walls; but the Turks had great cannons -- they battered the great walls, and were able to climb over the weak points nearly unopposed. So no, there was no secret weapon which ...


4

Tuscany had a military alliance and family ties with the Habsburg empire - at the time, Fakhr-al-Din was plotting to break free of Ottoman rule, and the Ottoman Empire was a longstanding enemy of the Austrians. He had hoped to enlist the aid of European powers like Austria and Spain, and was ready to hand over concessions in the holy land to get it - he was ...


4

Remember that just a year before Battle of Vienna, tsar Feodor Alexeyevich passed away, what resulted with Moscow Uprising of 1682. In result, all the power was gained by Sophia Alekseyevna, who became the regent of Russia. The future tsar, Peter the Great, was only 10 years old. Following the uprising, the internal situation of Russia was very unstable, ...


4

During the 18th and beginning of 19th centuries the Deys of Algiers made a series of treaties with European seafaring nations. Each of the European states would deliver yearly “gifts” in order to secure free passage of their ships. Otherwise, the corsairs of the North African states would capture whatever they could of ships: seize the cargoes and ships, and ...



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