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The Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline, both internal and external, during the 18th and 19th centuries, accelerating during the latter period, and ending with its total collapse and dissolution during the events surrounding World War I. Richard Hooker's The Ottomans tell's the story briefly. Note that by 1800 the Ottoman's had totally lost control ...


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Almost certainly yes. The army Mehmed II sent against Constantinople probably had more fighting men in it than there were human beings (soldiers, residents, and refugees) in the city of Constantinople at the time. He owned all the land for hundreds of miles in either direction. Essentially, the city had been reduced to a small fort within the Ottoman ...


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Greek fire was used in naval warfare, a way to damage enemy ships. The land sieges were ineffective in both cases. In 1453 the Greeks had no navy, and not enough men to man the walls; but the Turks had great cannons -- they battered the great walls, and were able to climb over the weak points nearly unopposed. So no, there was no secret weapon which ...


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Spain was fighting in two fronts. On the one hand, the netherlands want independence from Spain and the other hand Ottoman empire was unstoppable in eastern europe. The Christianity divided in two and Ottomans advancing. At the end, was decided that spanish navy to join with italian states navy against Ottoman navy. The Spanish tercios will be concentrated ...



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