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8

According to this source, Napoleon was particularly indebted to Sun Tzu for the combination of "Chang" and Ch'i. http://www.lesc.net/blog/napoleon-and-sun-tzu-gary-gagliardi-science-strategy-institute That is, the combination of a direct attack, which could be repulsed with difficulty, followed by a "smaller," but more lethal surprise attack that would ...


6

There are many factors: Economic motives: Many people saw colonies as markets for their finished products, and suppliers for their raw goods. Colonies provided raw materials that often could not be grown or found in the parent country. For example, England's colony in India. India was a good place to grow tea and opium, things that the British could not ...


5

I think there's a selection bias at play. A ruler that did not care about acquiring more land would typically end up avoiding conflict with the neighbors, and would tend to not be noticed historically. Just because the historically notable rulers were a certain way does not mean that the average rulers were the same way.


4

I found a rather lengthy discussion on this topic at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It points out that the concept is most likely to evolve between two culturally similar enemies. The shared values between these two sets of people will result in a situation where "they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare". The Introduction ...


2

Note: this is an opinion question (especially the second part) and probably off-topic here. I'll try to answer it nevertheless. I'm not sure there is a single rationale behind this. One reason is psychology. Humans build hierarchies instinctively and try to climb up. A country ruler is no exception, he will also instinctively try to amass more power and ...



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