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"History is written by victors" may itself be an example of history written by the losers! While the quote is commonly misattributed to Winston Churchill, it's origins are unknown and it might be inspired by Hermann Göring's quote: We will go down in history either as the world's greatest statesmen or its worst villains. On a (perhaps) more serious ...


7

Ptolemy da Lucca (c. 1236 – c. 1327), also known as Bartholomew of Lucca, Tolomeo da Lucca, and Tolomeo Fiadoni is considered today an advocate of republicanism, mainly from his contributions to Thomas Aquinas' De Regimine Principum (On the Government of Rulers), which he completed after Auquinas death (1274). Ptolemy's main influences were Aristotle's ...


5

There are branches in philosophy and sociology of science that talk about Mode 1 vs. Mode 2 of scientific production. Mode 1 is the "classic" form of research, perfomed mostly in academia and driven by a linear improve-the-state-of-knowledge mentality that science has defined as its ethos for the last couple of centuries. Wikipedia defines it as: ...


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It is a long and complicated story, but a very brief outline is the following. Copernicus book was published in 1543. For about 70 years after that the Church did not express any "official opinion" on it. The book was discussed by several writers, some supported and others criticized the theory, as it usually happens with scientific theories. The church did ...


4

Has its accuracy changed since? North Vietnam won over South Vietnam. Taliban won over Northern Alliance prior to US getting involved in 2001 Hezbollah effectively won against everyone (forced Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, and squeezed 'liberals' out of Lebanese politics). Depending on your definition of liberal, theorcats won in Iran in 1979. ...


4

Theory of history is so closely related to "historiography" or the practice of writing and criticising history that we may as well consider them to be basically coaligned. Therefore you will want to read EH Carr's "What is History?" and a textbook aimed at honours / post-graduate coursework students on historiography. Ranke started modern history with the ...


4

First of all I want to point out that Christianization did not bring any improvements in moral standards at the time. Conversely, the moral was gradually degrading whether due or not the advent of Christianity. Ancient Rome had possibly the most extensive legislation on social care and charity at the time, which included orphanages, pensions, alimentary ...


3

There probably were limited contacts between the Greeks and the Chinese, as the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (250 - 125 BC) expanded in the Tarim Basin in northwest China. Strabo (64/63 BC – ca. 24 AD), quoting Apollodorus of Artemita (c. 130–87 BCE), mentions: As for Bactria, a part of it lies alongside Aria towards the north, though most of it ...


3

Looks like you've rediscovered Jaspers's concept of the Axial Age. However, if I understand correctly he did not posit that the Chinese and Western cultures influenced each other, but rather that they arose simultaneously under similar circumstances. Nevertheless, this might be a good starting point to explore from.


3

Yes, there were some, more than one and surely more than we know. These known ones were from times about 6 centuries before Christ. Scriptures of Buddhism were not less revolutionary. Buddha is considered as a teacher of people and gods. Christ had never reached so far. Avesta of Zarathustra was the first documented teaching of kindness. Even in the ...


3

As this question's tag implies, this is more of a philosophy than a theory. Evidence is not always something you can apply to a philosophy. That doesn't make it any less valuable though. I understand that it was part of Communist (and thus Soviet) dogma that history is a large process that individual people cannot control any more than individual snowflakes ...


3

Its an interesting thesis. The problem is that "important" out he left himself essentially makes it a No true Scottsman argument. In other words, it isn't really a falsifiable statement. Any counter-argument I could possibly make can be dismissed as "not really an important war" (or failing that, you could try to argue against the liberality/fanacisim of the ...


2

You could make a counter-claim that the Napoleonic Wars do not fit his rules, and it certainly is in the time frame and is important. Having England mixed in with the half dozen Monarchies that had to pile on to knock out Napoleon doesn't increase the 'democratic average' much. And the French Government of the post revolution had elective parts like ...


2

Counterexamples: Spanish Civil War: one can argue that republicans were more liberal Chinese Civil War: one can argue that kuomitang was more liberal Russian Civil War: some anti-bolshevik factions were fighting under the slogan of support of the Russian Constituent Assembly - more liberal WW2: one can easily argue that USSR was less liberal than the 3rd ...


2

Wiki says he professed himself to be a Protestant. Do you have reason to doubt this? And why would the only alternative to a Calvinist Protestant be for him to be an atheist, when there were many other Christian sects and denominations?


2

The Arab-Israeli conflict. The Arabs lost to Israel in 4 wars (1948, 1967, 1973, 1982) but their version of history is the most accepted today (even the universal acceptance of the term "palestinian people"). Thus Israelis are portrayed a "colonizers", Zionism was portrayed as racism in the UN, and Israel as an apartheid state. This while Israel is the ...


2

I am reading Andrew Weatcroft's's The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburg, Ottomans, and the Battle for Europe (see also here). It contains this relevant statement in relation to a (from some perspective) loosing party rewriting history: Of course, once the great [Ottoman attack on Vienna in 1683] failed, history was rewritten and the sultan portrayed as ...


1

Here are some other examples: The US Civil War. Much of the history was driven by the South's need to justify itself especially after the first 20 years up to about 1960 or so. The Fall of the Roman Republic Virtually all of the surviving histories were written by the conservative factions of Rome and not by the Caesarian side. Augustus didn't mind that ...


1

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states that Bayle was considered to be a skeptic in many ways. He was engaged in theological debate his whole life, but at a time when atheists were extraordinarily rare. As a son of a priest I think it's hard to believe he was an outright atheist, but he was certainly not a devout believer. He seems to be a person ...


1

Actually, I'd say there's a pretty good chance you are misinterpreting some of these things. For instance, "Turn the other cheek" is often misinterpreted by modern people. It really should be known as "Turn the left cheek". It isn't about "humanitarianism" at all, but rather dealing with an oppressor. See the accepted answer for When do we as Christians draw ...



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