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12

Columbus' origins are a bit of a mystery. He himself claimed to have been born in Genoa, but this may have been a ruse according to some. http://www.christopher-columbus.eu/birth-1492.htm lists the most notable claims, Poland is not among those. What all the possible locations have in common is that they're in southern Europe, a quick look at the map shows ...


11

The wings varied greatly among each other, a.o. because of the production reasons, as there were no armor factories like recently. Also some hussars wore only one wing at the middle of the back. Also there are two ways to settle the wings - in the times of Sigismund III Vasa they were sticked mainly to the saddle, while under the rules of his son ...


11

Yes they did. The Treaty of Good Neighbourship and Friendly Cooperation qualifies as a "peace treaty"; see preamble and article 1 of the Polish text of the treaty. The treaty was signed in 1991 and went into force on 16 January 1992. It did not say specifically "we have had a war until today, but until tomorrow we are at peace", but it would hardly make ...


10

That Poland avoided internal wars of religion can indeed be attributed to the religious tolerance of the state at this time, a tolerance that stretches back a long time. And this has to do with it's position where many of it's neighbouring countries were not Catholic. To the east the Kievan Rus adopted Orthodoxy, and further north the areas now known as ...


8

No, there was no state of war between Germany and Poland. State of war can end either with a peace treaty or with a surrender. In this case there was a surrender of Germany. Furthermore. German state ceased to exist in mid-1945. If was completely demolished and as such, its foreign relations as well. After a while two new states were instituted by the ...


7

Poland was already by the Seven Years War a joint protectorate of Russia, Prussia, and Austria [edit] as well as France and Turkey. In a war amongst these three powers, and given the liberum veto which allowed any member of its Diet to nullify the proceedings of the whole, it was unable to have any bearing on the course of the war: (The Cambridge History of ...


6

The documents were published by Federal Archive Agency (I hope this name translates so, in Russian it is Федеральное архивное агентство) of Russian Federation in April 2010 on personal order by Russian President, D. Medvedev. They are available (in Russian) on this site: http://rusarchives.ru/publication/katyn/spisok.shtml The documents were presented by ...


6

On August 25, two days after the Nazi-Soviet Pact, the Agreement of Mutual Assistance between the United Kingdom and Poland was signed. The agreement contained promises of mutual military assistance between the nations in the event either was attacked by some "European country". The United Kingdom, sensing a dangerous trend of German expansionism, sought to ...


6

Did Hitler really intend a limited war against Poland? The invasion of Poland was likely not intended to start a major war. Of course we can never be sure of what anybody thinks, but not only did Hitler claim not to want a major war, wanting a major war is in itself a quite strange thing to do. Most likely Hitler wanted to just annex half of Poland ...


6

Manuel da Silva Rosa, an information technology analyst, claims that Columbus was the son of Władysław III of Poland (and Hungary, but for some reason nobody seems to mention that). To make this claim, he has to first claim that Władysław III, who died in a battle in 1444 without having children and had his head displayed on a pole, for no good reason faked ...


5

This story was also noticed by all Polish media. In the Polish Radio channel 4 (link) there was an programme about Manuel Rosa, "Portuguese historian, from Azores. He works on Duke University in Northern Carolina. Fluent in seven languages​​, has been hailed as the greatest living repository of knowledge about Columbus. He studies [Columbus'] life for over ...


5

Sorry for just a quick note - I'm on the finish of a big project. I hope that other answers will put more light on the details. If not, I'll go back to this later. I would connect it with the fact, that for Swedes, the control over Poland wasn't the key aim. They were more focused on the control of all the Baltic Sea shore, which would have enormous ...


4

Bogdan Khmelnytsky was arguably the "William Wallace" of the Ukraine. He not only took on the one noble, but the whole Polish noble "Establishment," to the point where even the King of Poland (a personal friend), wouldn't defend him. So he basically started a war between his Cossacks and the Poles. He was initially successful but the Poles were ...


4

I cannot offer definite proof right now, but I'm almost certain (von) Mises was an Austrian citizen at least sometimes before his forced emigration to Switzerland. Consider e.g. this: He was working for the national chamber of commerce and consulting for the Austrian government. Such roles are usually filled by citizens even today. Lots of people kept ...


3

The main problem was, that Poland and USSR were not in the state of war. The Polish government believed that Soviets will stop the aggression and forbid Polish troops to fight against Russians. It was because of a non-aggression pact since the peace treaty of Riga in 1921. The Poland did not want to break this treaty. Every assistance requested by Polish ...


3

Did Hitler really intend a limited war against Poland? What made Hitler invade Poland without expecting a war like Great War(ww1)? Hitler would have preferred another Munich Conference rather than an outright invasion of Poland. Hitler did not expect France and Great Britain to declare war since they never declared war over the remilitarization of ...


3

Poland was indeed involved in the 30 Years War, sending death squads to aid Habsburg allies in Bohemia and getting decked when Bohemia sicced the Ottoman Empire on them. At this time, Poland-Lithuania was far more unified politically under the Magnates and royalty than the Holy Roman Empire... and nobody kid themselves, the 30 Years War was a political as ...


2

Was Nicholas II REAL king of Poland? It is open to interpretations. But IMHO, it was just a title taken by Tsars. There was no state called 'Poland' but fragments or partitions of original Poland, which were provinces/districts in Prussia, Austria and Russia. Stanisław August Poniatowski was the last king (reign 1764-95) of independent Poland because, ...


1

It was mainly a "Phoney War." But early in September, the French advanced a few miles into the industrialized Saar region (as they did in 1923). They stopped as soon as they encountered their first real resistance in the form of German soldiers protected by mine fields, even though the 40 available French divisions outnumbered the German defenders by about 2 ...


1

First of all the sentence: "Ukrainiains seemed to accept Lithuanian rule for over two centuries" is an anachronism. There was no "Ukrainians" in the period you are talking about. Neither any "Belorussians" existed. What later became "Ukrainians" and "Belorussians" were descendants of that part of the population which was Orthodox by religion. After ...


1

Your question identifies, and hypothesizes a correlation between distance from Rome and pro (or anti) Catholic leanings. Under this hypothesis, Poland ought to be a "conflicted" country because of its "middle" distance. In seeking a correlation (that may be false), the hypothesis overlooks causal variables that affected other "middle distance" countries ...


1

Hitler did not want a Munich Conference in 1938 or 1939. He wanted to attack Czechoslovakia and Poland on his own terms, and retain the ability to attack France at his leisure. His cold feet were about starting a major war, and mainly related to whether the German people were behind him on it. For example, he was resolved to attack Prague in 1938. Goebbels ...


1

Originally, most knights were robbers. That is to say in the "bad old days" known as the Dark Ages. This was a period when Europe was basically in chaos, central authority was distant or non-existent, the population was declining and losing wealth. In such a vacuum, power rested in the hands of LOCAL authorities. The invention of the stirrup gave the ...



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