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11

In Poland since 1918, it's been the case that the citizenship could only be earned by descendants of Polish citizens. However, a big one-time change – which turned "almost everyone" into a citizen – came through the Polish Citizenship Act of 1920, Article 2 and 2a. On January 20th, 1920, everyone became a Polish citizen who was a resident on the new, ...


7

Soviet Union in that time? As a quick aside, we would know that the Soviet Union did not use any forms of encryption at this time as the Soviet Union did not exist yet. The ratification of the USSR occurred in December 1922 (a year after the conclusion of the war at the Treaty of Riga in '21). Bolshevik or Soviet Russia would be the appropriate party to ...


7

The information on this subject is scarce. We positively know that Tsarist army during WWI had all the sorts of contemporary cryptography, but the Red Army got only a small part of it. First special cryptographic service in Soviet Union (or Soviet Russia back then) was created only on 5th May, 1921. And it definitely took a few years for the new service to ...


5

I have data for 1939 at hand: bread 30 groszy/kilogram (kilogram = one standard loaf) milk 26 groszy/liter pork 1,50 zł/kilogram The monthly wage for skilled industry worker was 95 złotych (1 złoty = 100 groszy). The wage varied considerably through 1930s due to some deflation. The purchasing power steadily rose, if 1928 is taken as 100, in 1938 it ...


3

The "Germanization" process really only got underway after the unification of Germany in 1870. That means you have a period of only 40 years in which Germany is actively trying to suppress Polish culture. And in practice it wasn't very thorough. I think you vastly underestimate the opportunity for and existence of "high-level" communication and culture in ...


3

By the time of partition, Poles had strong cultural tradition and literature. Suppressing such language and culture is difficult or impossible. You say children were educated in German". I am sure they were educated also in Polish, even if this happened at home. Certainly there were many well educated Poles by 1918, and overwhelming majority could speak ...


3

Polish hussars are not the same as Russian hussars, entirely! Polish winged hussars are a kind of (super)heavy cavalry, while Russian hussars and hussars in other countries (Hungary, Germany etc) are a kind of lignt cavalry. So your premise is wrong.


3

So far, I have discovered these (which I believe are compiled from the same sources): http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=2236382 http://katyn.org.au/Lista_Katyn.pdf


3

In XIV century Lithuania viewed it's expansion in different ways than Poland. Lithuania simply didn't have manpower and numbers to conquer new territory and pacify it. The only think Lithuanians did, was changing local ruler to it's own, leaving religion, language and past system intact. Lithuanian dukes often married local Ruthenian princesses. Since they ...


2

The OP is making a mountain out of a molehill. Up until recent centuries, it was common (in English at least) to use the heraldic colors when describing coats of arms and flags. Polish heraldry and vexilology might use ordinary modern Polish words for colors, but English heraldry uses special heraldic words. Thus in English the Polish eagle wasn't white or ...


2

Polish United Workers' Party appeared in 1948 as a join of Polish Work Party and Polish Socialist Party. All members of both ancestors automatically became members of the Polish United Workers' Party. So, the reason of the personal terror couldn't be the struggle for individual members. Communists simply wanted socialists leaders to agree with that join. ...


1

An approximation of the eastern boundary of ethnic Poland was drawn by the Curzon Line put forth by Britain's foreign secretary, George Nathaniel Curzon. Coincidentally, or otherwise, it was actually very similar to the dividing line of the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939. Either of these two lines were ones that Polish nationalists could legitimately claim. In ...


1

Some Polish sources: Online http://www.osrp1939.policja.katowice.pl/Lista_Katyn-Pamietamy.pdf - "The list of people murdered in Katyń, Charkov, Tver, Mednoye, promoted posthumously" http://www.katedrapolowa.pl/ofiary.php - "Polish army officers and policemen murdered by NKVD and buried in Katyń, Mednoye and Charkov, also citizens of the RP [Republic of ...


1

These so-called "multiple government investigations" echoed the IPN, and, contrary to what the media says, it did NOT establish who burned the Jews of Jedwabne in the barn. Allow me to quote the English-language part of WOKOL JEDWABNEGO, the Proceedings volume--specifically the statement of investigator Pawel Machcewicz: "Another controversy surrounds the ...


1

The notion that Germans would protect Jews from Poles is preposterous on its face. Contrary to what the media says, the IPN is not the last word on the subject of Jedwabne. There are Jewish sources that point to the Germans, and not the Poles, as the main killers of Jedwabne's Jews. For instance, click on the following, read it, and then click on the links ...


1

Facts seem to show so-called Polish jokes are mainly Jewish American gags about (imagined) Poles. For example, books by a Jewish "comic" Larry Wilde, gags in Hollywood films e.g. by Allen. The extreme vulgarity, including frequent references to feces, and contempt towards the Poles makes these "jokes" a case of hate propaganda against a national group.



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