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10

In Poland since 1918, it's been the case that the citizenship could only be earned by descendants of Polish citizens. However, a big one-time change – which turned "almost everyone" into a citizen – came through the Polish Citizenship Act of 1920, Article 2 and 2a. On January 20th, 1920, everyone became a Polish citizen who was a resident on the new, ...


7

Soviet Union in that time? As a quick aside, we would know that the Soviet Union did not use any forms of encryption at this time as the Soviet Union did not exist yet. The ratification of the USSR occurred in December 1922 (a year after the conclusion of the war at the Treaty of Riga in '21). Bolshevik or Soviet Russia would be the appropriate party to ...


7

The information on this subject is scarce. We positively know that Tsarist army during WWI had all the sorts of contemporary cryptography, but the Red Army got only a small part of it. First special cryptographic service in Soviet Union (or Soviet Russia back then) was created only on 5th May, 1921. And it definitely took a few years for the new service to ...


5

I have data for 1939 at hand: bread 30 groszy/kilogram (kilogram = one standard loaf) milk 26 groszy/liter pork 1,50 zł/kilogram The monthly wage for skilled industry worker was 95 złotych (1 złoty = 100 groszy). The wage varied considerably through 1930s due to some deflation. The purchasing power steadily rose, if 1928 is taken as 100, in 1938 it ...


5

I used to believe that after the establishment of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, the capital was moved to Warsaw to be closer to the center of the combined country. While they're not wrong, the other answers to this effect may overlook a key factor. Its true that the Sejm or Parliament of the country began meeting in Warsaw as early as 1529, and ...


5

According to Wikipedia, just like Alexandre has said the reasons were mainly geographical. Warsaw was closer to Lithuania and many noble assemblies were held there. Also, as Sigismund was also the king of Sweden, it was easier to keep track of Swedish court from Warsaw. Regarding alchemical experiment, in 1595 huge fire broke out as a result of such ...


5

The capital of Poland was moved to Warsaw in 1595 for geographic reasons; Because of the formation of the commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania. Poland did not return to Krakow in the 20th century because Warsaw was already situated in the center of Poland, which is usually a major concern because you want a capital to be easily accessed by all the people. As for ...


4

The answer is based on my talks with people of Polish origins in East Prussia and Upper Silesia and might not represent all the cases. I also do understand the answer does not cite any sources. Since about late 1944 it was clear that the territories west of Poznań and Łódź are going to be in Poland. The Allied forces which were present in Western (of 1939) ...


3

So far, I have discovered these (which I believe are compiled from the same sources): http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=2236382 http://katyn.org.au/Lista_Katyn.pdf


3

Polish hussars are not the same as Russian hussars, entirely! Polish winged hussars are a kind of (super)heavy cavalry, while Russian hussars and hussars in other countries (Hungary, Germany etc) are a kind of lignt cavalry. So your premise is wrong.


3

In most cases it was regional. Entire towns and provinces were expelled if they were German. When you are expelling hundreds of thousands of people at once, you don't have the time to be going person by person. You just ship out the whole county. In cases where population was mixed, the name would usually indicate whether the person was German or Polish. If ...


3

I can't really provide example of Polish names in Upper Silesia, but I can provide you with one example and reason for it in Sudetenland before WW2 and one funny story from one village in Northern Moravia People in Sudetenland with the wake of nationalism often changed their names to pick sides. Be it to show more pro-German or pro-Czech sentiment. There is ...


3

The "Germanization" process really only got underway after the unification of Germany in 1870. That means you have a period of only 40 years in which Germany is actively trying to suppress Polish culture. And in practice it wasn't very thorough. I think you vastly underestimate the opportunity for and existence of "high-level" communication and culture in ...


3

By the time of partition, Poles had strong cultural tradition and literature. Suppressing such language and culture is difficult or impossible. You say children were educated in German". I am sure they were educated also in Polish, even if this happened at home. Certainly there were many well educated Poles by 1918, and overwhelming majority could speak ...


2

Polish United Workers' Party appeared in 1948 as a join of Polish Work Party and Polish Socialist Party. All members of both ancestors automatically became members of the Polish United Workers' Party. So, the reason of the personal terror couldn't be the struggle for individual members. Communists simply wanted socialists leaders to agree with that join. ...


2

I have performed some research and in fact it seems it was not very common, and if it was - being an unintentional result of mistakes or to make life simpler for officers. In comments I've shown an example. One of main characters of All Quiet on the Western Front by E. Remarque (Am Westen nichts neues), being a Polish from Poznań (Posen), named Stanisław ...


2

First of all, it is very important to notice that the situation in both Province of Upper Silesia within Prussia/Germany and The Voivodship of Silesia within Poland was extremely tense, due to the plebiscite and the 3 polish insurrections. It is absolutely impossible to find a contemporary source which is not extremely biased toward either Germany or Poland, ...


2

I've found one contemporary source in the university library but it seems to be extremely biased. It's a slim 30-pages brochure called "The Poles in Germany and the Germans in Poland" by one George Kurnatowski, a political science professor from Warsaw, published in 1927. Prof. Kurnatowski is strenuosly trying to show that the Poles in Germany are ...


2

In XIV century Lithuania viewed it's expansion in different ways than Poland. Lithuania simply didn't have manpower and numbers to conquer new territory and pacify it. The only think Lithuanians did, was changing local ruler to it's own, leaving religion, language and past system intact. Lithuanian dukes often married local Ruthenian princesses. Since they ...


2

The OP is making a mountain out of a molehill. Up until recent centuries, it was common (in English at least) to use the heraldic colors when describing coats of arms and flags. Polish heraldry and vexilology might use ordinary modern Polish words for colors, but English heraldry uses special heraldic words. Thus in English the Polish eagle wasn't white or ...


1

These so-called "multiple government investigations" echoed the IPN, and, contrary to what the media says, it did NOT establish who burned the Jews of Jedwabne in the barn. Allow me to quote the English-language part of WOKOL JEDWABNEGO, the Proceedings volume--specifically the statement of investigator Pawel Machcewicz: "Another controversy surrounds ...


1

The notion that Germans would protect Jews from Poles is preposterous on its face. Contrary to what the media says, the IPN is not the last word on the subject of Jedwabne. There are Jewish sources that point to the Germans, and not the Poles, as the main killers of Jedwabne's Jews. For instance, click on the following, read it, and then click on the links ...


1

Some Polish sources: Online http://www.osrp1939.policja.katowice.pl/Lista_Katyn-Pamietamy.pdf - "The list of people murdered in Katyń, Charkov, Tver, Mednoye, promoted posthumously" http://www.katedrapolowa.pl/ofiary.php - "Polish army officers and policemen murdered by NKVD and buried in Katyń, Mednoye and Charkov, also citizens of the RP [Republic of ...



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