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61

Poland wasn't actually "spared", it was merely less affected than the rest of Europe. That graphic is incorrect (or rather, incomplete), since a substantial number of both Poland and Milan's population did in fact die of the plague. Their death rates were only "low" in comparison to the rest of Europe - if it happened today, it would be horrifying to us. ...


13

There are three types of plague, Pneumonic, Bubonic, and Septicemic all of which are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. People infected by fleas get the bubonic form of the plague. However, if the bacteria reaches the lungs, it becomes pneumonic plague which is more virulent spreading via person to person by coughing then no rats are needed since the ...


11

Did Hitler really intend a limited war against Poland? The invasion of Poland was likely not intended to start a major war. Of course we can never be sure of what anybody thinks, but not only did Hitler claim not to want a major war, wanting a major war is in itself a quite strange thing to do. Most likely Hitler wanted to just annex half of Poland ...


5

It was actually the other way around. slave (n.) late 13c., "person who is the chattel or property of another," from Old French esclave (13c.), from Medieval Latin Sclavus "slave" (source also of Italian schiavo, French esclave, Spanish esclavo), originally "Slav" (see Slav); so used in this secondary sense because of the many Slavs sold into slavery by ...


5

Bogdan Khmelnytsky was arguably the "William Wallace" of the Ukraine. He not only took on the one noble, but the whole Polish noble "Establishment," to the point where even the King of Poland (a personal friend), wouldn't defend him. So he basically started a war between his Cossacks and the Poles. He was initially successful but the Poles were ...


4

First of all the sentence: "Ukrainiains seemed to accept Lithuanian rule for over two centuries" is an anachronism. There was no "Ukrainians" in the period you are talking about. Neither any "Belorussians" existed. What later became "Ukrainians" and "Belorussians" were descendants of that part of the population which was Orthodox by religion. After ...


3

The Order of the White Eagle was ordained by King Władysław (Vladistas) in 1325, instituted on the occasion of his son Casimir's marriage. Ensign: a white eagle, crowned. To this order belonged both noble Poles and Russians [Lexicon Tetraglotton (1660)]. In 1705, Augustus, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, revived the order. From 1705, many important ...


3

Using Jairus Banaji's lovely Theory as History (Haymarket/Brill) he goes into depth into the role of early capitalism in reinfeudating Poland. (First four chapters iirc). The Eastern Baltic ended up being the granary of Western Europe. This put pressure on landlords over a long period of time to extract the maximum cash / good-as-cash that they could from ...


3

"dead credit" isn't a concept, it is a metaphor. See the notes: "Verse commentary in Polish presents mourning over the personalized credit (buying on credit I warn you, do not go anywhere without money - Przestrzegam was nie chodźcie nigdzie bez pieniędzy):" The community are mourning the loss of credit. I'm not sure what event caused them to lose credit ...


3

One factor to consider also is that Poland had a much smaller population than western Europe. Around the time of the black death, the polish population was something like 2-3 million, while the French population was about 14 Milton or even higher. It's common sense that disease spreads easier in higher population density areas, especially when hygiene was ...


3

Hitler did not want a Munich Conference in 1938 or 1939. He wanted to attack Czechoslovakia and Poland on his own terms, and retain the ability to attack France at his leisure. His cold feet were about starting a major war, and mainly related to whether the German people were behind him on it. For example, he was resolved to attack Prague in 1938. Goebbels ...


2

After performing some social media searches, I realized that Mr. Jamieson has a Facebook page. I have started a short dialog with him during which he has responded thusly: Me: "When did you perform in Poland in the 70's?" Ian: "Hi Chris, It all happened in 1986" Me: "By the way, the reason I asked was to answer a question asked here: Where ...


2

It seems that there is a correlation between exposure to and surviving the plague and a genetic predisposition against infection with HIV that has a prevalence in Northern Europe that is not observed in Southern Europe: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/10/4/l_104_05.html


2

When I traveled Krakow last month, the tour guide explained Black Death affected less in Poland because they had life style sanitizing dishes with vodka.


2

Based on some digging through the limited primary source material that is available online, I have some doubts that this is verifiable. I also can't find a reference in any of the secondary materials that I have access to other than the un-cited Wikipedia entries. Note that the dates below shouldn't be used to build a timeline, given the fact that different ...


1

During the Napoleonic wars Napoleon granted Poland a level of autonomy (duchy of warsaw) but it was still a puppet state of the French Empire. Many Poles backed Napoleon, up to 100,000 Poles served in the Grand Armee and King Poniatowski's nephew, Jozef Poniatowski even became a marshal of France. However after the fall of Napoleon the Grand duchy of warsaw, ...


1

Hitler at the time was demanding a corridor of territory linking Pomerania with the Germanic peoples of East Prussia known as the Danzig corridor. During 1938 Britain and France had acquiesced and actually agreed with Hitler's Carlsbad program demanding that the Czechs should surrender territory which had majority German populations. Anglo French support ...



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