Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

68

Poland wasn't actually "spared", it was merely less affected than the rest of Europe. That graphic is incorrect (or rather, incomplete), since a substantial number of both Poland and Milan's population did in fact die of the plague. Their death rates were only "low" in comparison to the rest of Europe - if it happened today, it would be horrifying to us. ...


16

There are three types of plague, Pneumonic, Bubonic, and Septicemic all of which are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. People infected by fleas get the bubonic form of the plague. However, if the bacteria reaches the lungs, it becomes pneumonic plague which is more virulent spreading via person to person by coughing then no rats are needed since the ...


12

Mussolini learnt about the German intentions first as did most other countries, by diplomatic reports from his ambassador in Berlin and similar sources; alarmed, in early August 1939, Mussolini sent Galeazzo Ciano for a meeting with Ribbentrop, who told him Germany intended to invade the whole of Poland, not just Danzig. Mussolini was clearly against it, ...


12

Before asking this question, you could consult Wikipedia, which says: From the start, the Luftwaffe attacked civilian targets and columns of refugees along the roads to wreak havoc, disrupt communications, and target Polish morale. Apart from the victims of battles, the German forces (both SS and the regular Wehrmacht) murdered several thousand Polish ...


10

There never were many Polish Calvinists. Poland showed some promise for the Calvinist cause at the start, but these early hopes bore few fruits. Calvinism, and Protestantism in general, failed to take root in the general Polish populace. Without strong leaders and facing competition from Lutheranism, Polish Calvinism soon lost its momentum. The ...


7

Well, the when is relatively easy. It happened during the 17th century. Here's a religious map of Poland in 1573 (Calvinist areas in purple): ...and here is what it looked like by 1750 (no Calvinists): If you read a bit between the lines, it appears that the faith was strongest amongst the nobility and financial elite, and never really made big inroads ...


7

Mostly to supervise the enforcement of ceasefire and peace terms. Polish involvement began in 1954 as a member of the International Commission of Control, together with Canada and India. That entity was setup at the conclusion of the First Indochina War to monitor the peace agreement. It was a general failure all around, resulting in the Second Indochina ...


5

I used to believe that after the establishment of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, the capital was moved to Warsaw to be closer to the center of the combined country. While they're not wrong, the other answers to this effect may overlook a key factor. Its true that the Sejm or Parliament of the country began meeting in Warsaw as early as 1529, and ...


5

According to Wikipedia, just like Alexandre has said the reasons were mainly geographical. Warsaw was closer to Lithuania and many noble assemblies were held there. Also, as Sigismund was also the king of Sweden, it was easier to keep track of Swedish court from Warsaw. Regarding alchemical experiment, in 1595 huge fire broke out as a result of such ...


5

The capital of Poland was moved to Warsaw in 1595 for geographic reasons; Because of the formation of the commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania. Poland did not return to Krakow in the 20th century because Warsaw was already situated in the center of Poland, which is usually a major concern because you want a capital to be easily accessed by all the people. As for ...


5

In Poland since 1918, it's been the case that the citizenship could only be earned by descendants of Polish citizens. However, a big one-time change – which turned "almost everyone" into a citizen – came through the Polish Citizenship Act of 1920, Article 2 and 2a. On January 20th, 1920, everyone became a Polish citizen who was a resident on the new, ...


4

One factor to consider also is that Poland had a much smaller population than western Europe. Around the time of the black death, the polish population was something like 2-3 million, while the French population was about 14 Milton or even higher. It's common sense that disease spreads easier in higher population density areas, especially when hygiene was ...


4

The answer is based on my talks with people of Polish origins in East Prussia and Upper Silesia and might not represent all the cases. I also do understand the answer does not cite any sources. Since about late 1944 it was clear that the territories west of Poznań and Łódź are going to be in Poland. The Allied forces which were present in Western (of 1939) ...


3

So far, I have discovered these (which I believe are compiled from the same sources): http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=2236382 http://katyn.org.au/Lista_Katyn.pdf


3

In most cases it was regional. Entire towns and provinces were expelled if they were German. When you are expelling hundreds of thousands of people at once, you don't have the time to be going person by person. You just ship out the whole county. In cases where population was mixed, the name would usually indicate whether the person was German or Polish. If ...


3

Using Jairus Banaji's lovely Theory as History (Haymarket/Brill) he goes into depth into the role of early capitalism in reinfeudating Poland. (First four chapters iirc). The Eastern Baltic ended up being the granary of Western Europe. This put pressure on landlords over a long period of time to extract the maximum cash / good-as-cash that they could from ...


3

"dead credit" isn't a concept, it is a metaphor. See the notes: "Verse commentary in Polish presents mourning over the personalized credit (buying on credit I warn you, do not go anywhere without money - Przestrzegam was nie chodźcie nigdzie bez pieniędzy):" The community are mourning the loss of credit. I'm not sure what event caused them to lose credit ...


3

It seems that there is a correlation between exposure to and surviving the plague and a genetic predisposition against infection with HIV that has a prevalence in Northern Europe that is not observed in Southern Europe: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/10/4/l_104_05.html


2

When I traveled Krakow last month, the tour guide explained Black Death affected less in Poland because they had life style sanitizing dishes with vodka.


2

In XIV century Lithuania viewed it's expansion in different ways than Poland. Lithuania simply didn't have manpower and numbers to conquer new territory and pacify it. The only think Lithuanians did, was changing local ruler to it's own, leaving religion, language and past system intact. Lithuanian dukes often married local Ruthenian princesses. Since they ...


2

After performing some social media searches, I realized that Mr. Jamieson has a Facebook page. I have started a short dialog with him during which he has responded thusly: Me: "When did you perform in Poland in the 70's?" Ian: "Hi Chris, It all happened in 1986" Me: "By the way, the reason I asked was to answer a question asked here: Where ...


2

I can't really provide example of Polish names in Upper Silesia, but I can provide you with one example and reason for it in Sudetenland before WW2 and one funny story from one village in Northern Moravia People in Sudetenland with the wake of nationalism often changed their names to pick sides. Be it to show more pro-German or pro-Czech sentiment. There is ...


2

I have performed some research and in fact it seems it was not very common, and if it was - being an unintentional result of mistakes or to make life simpler for officers. In comments I've shown an example. One of main characters of All Quiet on the Western Front by E. Remarque (Am Westen nichts neues), being a Polish from Poznań (Posen), named Stanisław ...


1

Some Polish sources: Online http://www.osrp1939.policja.katowice.pl/Lista_Katyn-Pamietamy.pdf - "The list of people murdered in Katyń, Charkov, Tver, Mednoye, promoted posthumously" http://www.katedrapolowa.pl/ofiary.php - "Polish army officers and policemen murdered by NKVD and buried in Katyń, Mednoye and Charkov, also citizens of the RP [Republic of ...


1

Answering the second part of your question, it is quite probable that Mussolini was against war with Poland, although I don't know what his opinion about German-Polish war was. During the war (until 1942, IIRC) Poland and Italy were not in a state of war. This is of course officially, as Polish soldiers fought against Italians eg. in Africa (but as a part ...


1

Following the "Pact of Steel" concluded in May 1939, Germany and Italy consulted on all major European matters, so Mussolini knew about Germany's plans to invade Poland no later than August, 1939. Italy's response was the so-called "Molybdenum List," a long list of war materials, headed by molybdenum, that Italy would require before joining Germany in a ...


1

Before the war, the province of Silesia was united. The League of Nation imposed autonomy of the Province of Upper Silesia within Prussia: It was separated from the Province of Lower Silesia which was almost exclusively German. A polish majority remained in almost all districts of the Upper Silesia province: Only the districts of Falkenberg, Neisse, ...


1

I've found one contemporary source in the university library but it seems to be extremely biased. It's a slim 30-pages brochure called "The Poles in Germany and the Germans in Poland" by one George Kurnatowski, a political science professor from Warsaw, published in 1927. Prof. Kurnatowski is strenuosly trying to show that the Poles in Germany are ...


1

A peace treaty with just Poland really makes little sense; it would have had to be a peace treaty with the Soviet Union (and the US, Britain and France) as well. Until 1990, West Germany would not have considered a peace treaty because it would mean permanently ceding East Germany. The Germans preferred to have the formal status of occupied country. After ...


1

During the Napoleonic wars Napoleon granted Poland a level of autonomy (duchy of warsaw) but it was still a puppet state of the French Empire. Many Poles backed Napoleon, up to 100,000 Poles served in the Grand Armee and King Poniatowski's nephew, Jozef Poniatowski even became a marshal of France. However after the fall of Napoleon the Grand duchy of warsaw, ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible