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An approximation of the eastern boundary of ethnic Poland was drawn by the Curzon Line put forth by Britain's foreign secretary, George Nathaniel Curzon. Coincidentally, or otherwise, it was actually very similar to the dividing line of the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939. Either of these two lines were ones that Polish nationalists could legitimately claim. In ...


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The "Germanization" process really only got underway after the unification of Germany in 1870. That means you have a period of only 40 years in which Germany is actively trying to suppress Polish culture. And in practice it wasn't very thorough. I think you vastly underestimate the opportunity for and existence of "high-level" communication and culture in ...


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By the time of partition, Poles had strong cultural tradition and literature. Suppressing such language and culture is difficult or impossible. You say children were educated in German". I am sure they were educated also in Polish, even if this happened at home. Certainly there were many well educated Poles by 1918, and overwhelming majority could speak ...



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