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43

I take your question as meaning: when did Romans realize that they were living in a monarchy ? (As opposed to the aristocratic regime previously known as "republic".) We must first realize that there cannot be a single point in time, because the Roman people did not operate under a uniform and shared mind. Throughout the whole antiquity, three quarters of ...


26

There was a separation between the noble french and the vulgar Old English. Or as I wrote in my comment: Who cares about the language of peasants I found a nice source for this assumption Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD): After William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England in 1066 AD with his armies and became king, he ...


21

It looks fairly likely this story was invented around the turn of the 21'st Century. The hits against it are: No reference to it has ever been found any older than 1998 (reportedly from a American neo-gnostic publication). Lord Macauly is known to have been in the middle of a stint in India (halfway around the world) in 1835 when this was supposedly ...


20

I wouldn't characterize post-Magna Carta England as having a weak central government. Compared to the Holy Roman Empire it had a very efficient central government, in which the parliament played an important role alongeside the king. The early English Parliament already had a House of Commons. Hence not only the nobility was given rights but the common ...


18

There are two problems with the way the discussion is phrased, which I will try to summarize below. Terminology problems. Some are unfortunate byproduct of social sciences being an imprecise (to put it politely) field of study, some are byproduct of cultural/historical drifts and differences, and some are a product of deliberate misinformation by "left ...


14

I think @T.E.D.'s answer makes a very convincing case for the speech being a modern forgery, like the Protocols or the Dulles Plan. It's also, imho, a very inept forgery. As T.E.D. has pointed out the language is too modern. As one who has read some works by Macaulay, I must also add that the style does not seem to be his and is very much inferior. To ...


12

The reasons are so numerous and overlapping. There would have been very little to gain from establishing dominance of French culture. People did not form sympathies or loyalties based on language or culture – that development had to wait for another 700 years or so. It would have been completely impossible to enforce such a ban. There were no such ...


12

Because the medical profession was opposed to it. Roosevelt's administration feared that including the universal health insurance provisions would kill the entire Social Security Act. For the sake of passing the Social Security bill, we postponed the introduction of the bill on health insurance as the opposition was so great from the American Medical ...


12

Disclaimer: As has been repeatedly pointed out, this is a gradual shift that cannot really be pinpointed. Moreover, in my opinion, it hugely depends on how one interpret any of the several parts in this question. Duringthe Principate period (27 B.C. – A.D. 284), emperors carefully maintained the façades of Republican government. The senate continued ...


11

In addition to what you list, the organizational structure, bookkeeping of the monarchs, and relative literacy levels (albeit not high levels absolutely) helped enable a democratic system to emerge. Townhalls and church organizations allowed for some census and accountability to emerge. The later monarchs kept relatively accurate and complete tax records ...


11

Many 17th century settlers in what is now the United States were indeed indigent or criminals, but not all, and we should understand the "criminality" in question. Many English farmers lost their livelihood due to enclosure, which had reached new heights during the Tudor years. Some ran themselves into debt and faced debtors' prison (indeed, Georgia Colony ...


11

It actually happens fairly often. The last was in 2004, where a Minnesota elector (who would not own up to it) voted for Edwards (the VP candidate) instead of John Kerry. The assumption has been that this was done out of incompetence rather than malice. The cycle before that, the DC elector refused to vote, in protest to DC having no congressional ...


10

The Nazi Party destroyed the political apparatus of the working class, broke the trade union movement, and handed the economy over to German capitalist monopolies. "Socialism" in the mind of the NSDAP involved either the SA's street fighting fantasy of a German nation recast in the image of the right wing worker; or, the NSDAP's central apparatus' ...


10

I doubt this is to do with a civil war, but instead to do with the voting system. This is Duverger's law. The USA & the UK use a first past the post system, as opposed to a proportional representation system, and under that, the system tends to 2 parties. The UK is in Europe, has had a civil war (though is irrelevant now), and has a 2 party system ...


10

There may not be enough data to get any meaningful answers, but it's worth remembering that the U.S. has had a two-party system for most of its history, including before the civil war (Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists, Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans, Democrats vs. Whigs). As for other countries, remember that almost no country has a system as strong ...


10

It appears so. See The Unreformed House of Commons: Parliamentary Representation before 1832 (1903), by Edward Porritt, for a discussion on this. On page 357-358: "It was in this period when, as the North correspondence shows, a nomination to a seat fetched from two thousand five hundred to three thousand pounds, that seats were first advertised for ...


9

The Republican Party was always, since its founding, a "pro-business" party. The party was formed from the remnants of the previous pro-business party, the Whig Party, when that party split over the expansion of slavery into the territories in the early 1850's. The two platforms are not as disjoint as they may at first appear. Northern business interests ...


9

If one interprets this question as Why were the Merovingians so reviled at the peak of their power?, then the answer is easy: they weren't. At the peak of their power, the frankish kingdoms were the most powerful geopolitical entities in Western Europe, were recognized as such and their kings were treated accordingly. The early Carolingians reviled the ...


9

The most obvious examples would be three members of the Founding Fathers who served in roles for the British government. George Washington served as both a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses which dealt directly with the royal appointed Governor of Virginia, and as a member of the British army. John Adams was briefly a member of the Massachusetts ...


9

From what I've gathered from books (e.g. Joseph Baratz' A Village By the Jordan: The Story of Degania and Daniel Gavron's The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia) kibbutzim were of critical importance to Israel prior to and in the immediate period after of the state's foundation. They were both collective and agricultural enterprises, they also offered local ...


8

The U.S. has a two party system because of winner-take-all elections and the powerful executive branch. There are no run off elections so "third parties" are considered spoilers and can't gain traction.


8

Yes. The Latin League was founded in 7th century B.C. by a set of Italian states. The capital city was Alba Longa. Delian League was founded in 5th century BC Peloponnesian League was formed between 6 and 4th centuries BC League of Corinth was formed during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC Achaean League existed between 280 BC and 146 BC In central, barbarian, ...


8

"Nationalism" as a term in its modern definition Regularly being referred to as an author of remarkable influence on the terms nationality and nationalism in their modern recipation is Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803). In his work Ideas for the Philosophy of History of Humanity (1784–91), he is at least one of the first to claim that human societies ...


8

This is not a complete answer because your question is actually a huge topic with many possible approaches. Birth is ethnicity My personal view on this is that, long ago, at a time when the nomadic way of life was the rule, nations did not relate to geographical origin but rather to birth. The etymology of various IE languages is very clear on this: ...


8

No. It does not always go hand in hand. In fact, if history is any guide, it tended to be the opposite. There are a lot more successful, stable empires than democracy. Many empires saw long period of peace and prosperity that they were called "Pax something", like Pax Romana, Pax Mongolica and Pax Ottomana. Other than those we also have the Imperial China, ...


8

When we use historical methods and sources we're doing history. When we use influence and governance, we're doing politics. The distinction between history and politics isn't in the event, it is in your relationship to the event and the use to which you're trying to put the event. If I research the legal status of Kosovo with an intent to determine how a ...


8

Ostensibly, Labour was against immigration controls. This is evident from its opposition to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968. But your real question appears to be, how likely Labour would have passed the same law. I would argue that there's no great need for speculation. Labour was voted into power during the 1964 election. Despite its earlier ...


7

It seems that the most controversies between the political parties in the US lay outside of left-right dimension. In other countries these issues (LGBT, abortions, capital punishment, women rights, ban on smoking etc) would be considered non-political entirely because "political" usually means connected to left-right dispute. In Russia one can say "I decided ...


7

I think the legislatures in many countries have the same structure. A quite distant example is the Supreme Council of the USSR which also had two chambers, the Council of the Union and the Council of the Nationalities. The former was elected by the population at rate of 1 deputy per 300000 people while the later represented the constituent republics. I ...


7

Heavily revised based on comments This question is NOT simple; I would argue that it cannot be answered, but I can outline what I think the parameters of the answer might be. In "The Origins of Political Order", Fukayama makes a throwaway comment that the key is that the government be accountable to the people; democracy is only one of the ways that ...



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