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The Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline, both internal and external, during the 18th and 19th centuries, accelerating during the latter period, and ending with its total collapse and dissolution during the events surrounding World War I. Richard Hooker's The Ottomans tell's the story briefly. Note that by 1800 the Ottoman's had totally lost control ...


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The United Nations organization is not designed to produce peace by itself. It is a forum where the Security Council veto powers can meet and negotiate a solution. When the veto powers disagree, the UN is either ineffective or paralyzed. And arguably there is no peace right now. Sure, few nations fight each other, but there is widespread conflict within ...


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No judicial but legislative ruling required to make secession legal (at least as the first step). Secessionists could introduce secession bill to the Congress, and if they did, most likely they could get peaceful separation (considering that Corwin Amendment passed Congress even without votes of seven seceding states). If bill failed, they could bring the ...


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Here is a reducto ad Absurbum of the idea that "train" only refers to a railroad train. J.R.R. Tolkien, writer of Lord of the Rings, was a professional philologist and knew the meanings of words. In the Silmarillion chapter on the Dagor Bragollach, "The Battle of Sudden Flame", Tolkien describes a sudden attack by Morgoth, the original Dark Lord, on his ...


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The Dixiecrats and the AIP were not really the same party, because they were led differently. But they had somewhat the same ideologies, geographies and voters. The Dixiecrats were led by Strom Thurmond, an aristocrat. He was pro-business and particularly popular among business owners in the coastal regions the south, and won his native South Carolina, plus ...


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Why did Ferdinand become emperor after Charles V? Charles V was elected emperor on 28 June 1519 and crowned King of the Romans on 26 October 1520. He was crowned King of Italy on 22 February 1530 and crowned Emperor of the Romans on 24 February 1530. For various reasons the seven electors met and agreed to make Ferdinand the next emperor. He was elected ...


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If you were a ruler and your person is under threat, you'd want a well-trained bodyguard to protect you. As has already been answered in comments - there are heaps of examples of bodyguard units who are treated as an elite with better equipment, training, conditions, and privileges: Praetorian Guard in the Roman Empire Varangian Guard in the Byzantine ...


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Before and during the war Germany was officially what was known as the "German Confederation", a republic of many different independent states. The loss of the war completely destroyed the confederation. What happened is that the army stopped fighting the Allies and attacked and invaded all the different principalities of Germany, which were all mutinying, ...



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