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10

The Nazi Party destroyed the political apparatus of the working class, broke the trade union movement, and handed the economy over to German capitalist monopolies. "Socialism" in the mind of the NSDAP involved either the SA's street fighting fantasy of a German nation recast in the image of the right wing worker; or, the NSDAP's central apparatus' ...


10

I doubt this is to do with a civil war, but instead to do with the voting system. This is Duverger's law. The USA & the UK use a first past the post system, as opposed to a proportional representation system, and under that, the system tends to 2 parties. The UK is in Europe, has had a civil war (though is irrelevant now), and has a 2 party system ...


10

There may not be enough data to get any meaningful answers, but it's worth remembering that the U.S. has had a two-party system for most of its history, including before the civil war (Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists, Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans, Democrats vs. Whigs). As for other countries, remember that almost no country has a system as strong ...


9

The Republican Party was always, since its founding, a "pro-business" party. The party was formed from the remnants of the previous pro-business party, the Whig Party, when that party split over the expansion of slavery into the territories in the early 1850's. The two platforms are not as disjoint as they may at first appear. Northern business interests ...


8

The U.S. has a two party system because of winner-take-all elections and the powerful executive branch. There are no run off elections so "third parties" are considered spoilers and can't gain traction.


8

A major factor was the war of 1812. The Federalist party for a long time supported peace with Britain and war with France whereas the Democratic-Republican party had the exact opposite position. Eventually, British behavor towards the US during its war with France caused anti-British and thus anti-Federalist sentiment. Quoting the Wikipedia regarding the ...


6

I'm not sure that anyone is responsible for this shift; I rather suspect that politics is stochastic more often than planned. I'm not sure that it is possible to give an answer that a panel of objective observers would agree with. With those caveats in mind, I'd offer the following description of events. I think the dominant player is FDR. FDR built a ...


4

Reagan's weakness was that he was not a member of the "Eastern Establishment." Ford was, as well as the incumbent President. That fact led many "established" Republicans to support him "automatically. Reagan needed a "breakthrough." He came close in New Hampshire, with something like 49.5% of the two-candidate vote. Topping Ford there would have been huge. ...


4

I would date the "turning" of the Republican party into a pro business party to William McKinley 1897-1901. The Republicans dominated the Presidency for 72 years between 1861-1933. But this can be subdivided into two 36 year sub periods 1861-1896, and 1897-1932. It's true, as one of the other respondendents pointed out, that the Republicans absorbed the ...


4

The "Nazi" Party STARTED OUT as the National Socialist German Workers Party, with a left-leaning, socialist bent. That is, until it enrolled "Member Number 7," aka Adolf Hitler, who had other ideas. A World War I veteran, Hitler figured out the the "Dolchstoss" legend, the idea that Germany had been winning World War I until it was "stabbed in the back" by ...


4

The same reason the "Democratic People's Republic of (North) Korea" is a democratic republic... It wasn't. There was a time when socialism really seemed like the way forward, tempering free enterprise with thoughtful regulation and investing workers in the means of production. So non-socialists like the Nazis and Communists called themselves socialist to ...


3

I assume your interest is primarily in Marxist social democracy as opposed to Marxist bolshevism or Marxist council communism. Regarding social democracy: "Welfare" is a suspicious term for an avowedly Marxist party like the 1925 SPD (Germany). The Heidelberg Program (1925, http://www.marxists.org/deutsch/geschichte/deutsch/spd/1925/heidelberg.htm ) ...


3

Jefferson and Adams' policy debates over Revolutionary War debts and relations with France and Great Britain became very public and personal throughout Washington's presidency and into the Presidential election of 1796. Their surrogates circulated vicious personal attacks during Adams' Presidency, while Jefferson served as Vice President. Their followings ...


3

The Federalist party had the perception of favoring the upper class, and as a result they began to lose support of the general population. The Democratic and Republican parties started focusing on issues that appealed more to the "common man", and as a result began to sway voters away from the Federalist party until it finally ceased to exist.


2

Both the US and British legislative bodies underwent transformations in the last half of the 18th and first half of the 19th century, and it is useful to study them together. At the beginning of the period, neither had "political parties" as we understand them. They evolved political parties as a way of forcing a diversity of viewpoints into actionable ...


2

What led to the rise to political parties was the fact that Hamilton and Jefferson had conflicting views. Also the fact that Washington favored Hamilton’s ideas which made Jefferson very mad because he wanted to have his ideas favored also. Last but not least the two parties fought over governmental issues also played a part in the rise of political parties. ...


2

The Federalists and Anti-Federalists started around the Constitutional Ratification, during the adoption fight but eventually grew under Hamilton to the political party that they became during the first few presidential administrations. Afterwards you had like-minded groups grow because the only way to get elected, or names on the ballots because of the way ...


2

It wasn't socialist, and in fact was vehenmently opposed to actual socialists/communists. The Reichstag Fire was one of the causes for Nazi party to grab power and was sold as the beginnings of a communist uprising. Socialism was not considered right wing in 1930s Europe. (Remember in the USA "Socialist" is used as a dirty word. In Europe this is not the ...


1

I'll answer only for the United States, the country I know best, but the answer is yes. Prior to the Civil War, there as a "crazy quilt" of parties. A 36 year period from 1824-1860 began with the ruling party as the "Democratic-Republican" Party. The main opposition party morphed from the Federalist party to the Whig Party. A third party, the Free Soil ...



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