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Origins of Pan-Slavism Speaking as a (western) Slav, panslavism was indeed a big topic in 19th century politics. The primary reason for this seems to have been that outside of Russia, most Slavic populations were not in fact in their own nation states, but rather were subjugated by other national groups. This included, for instance, Czechs under Austrian ...


8

There's not really a "specific reason" since he lost favour over some period of time, rather immediately in response to a single event. But some generally agreed factors were Stalin's paranoia and intolerance of dissent, as well as and Molotov's own personality. Vyacheslav Molotov is well known to be stubborn and independent minded. He argued with Stalin ...


6

It really depends on what you mean by "supposed to be practically in charge". Supposed by whom ? If the war rages on and the leader does not even know, then one can confidently say that the leader does not hold the actual power, which is instead in the hands of people who perfectly know that the leader is not actually leading. One situation which is similar ...


6

Common knowledge: The One Time Pad is in theory unbreakable (and in practice if properly managed - I'm looking at you Soviet Union). This is a Poly-alphabetic substitution cipher with a random key (in effect infinity long).


5

It wasn't just about the Slavs; people everywhere were feeling this way. It essentially happened because the idea of Nationalism: that people in ethnically, geographically, culturally, and linguistically coherent areas should owe their allegiance only to their own single native governments, became a popular sentiment worldwide. Ethnic nationalism was in ...


5

This is a bit of a tricky question. Before speaking of historical views of homosexuality, it is very important to understand what is being spoken about. Prior to the 20th century, there really was no concept of homosexuality as we understand it today. In the late 19th century, the concept of homosexuality as an actual orientation was first proposed and ...


4

I am considering this a reference request for seminal works on "power" in historiography. The most well known recent theorist of "power" as a historical determinant is Foucault. In Foucault's work power seems to be organised by a historical context of possibilities of knowledge, an "episteme," that orders how people perceive and enact power. I do not ...


3

I wouldn't call it "unique," but Hitler adopted the "Keynesian" prescription of "pump-priming" a depressed economy through government spending. Even if it was for military spending (which to Hitler, was a form of "investment.") This started in 1933-34, and pre-dated Keynes' 1936 tome, "A General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money." This gave Nazi ...


3

I assume your interest is primarily in Marxist social democracy as opposed to Marxist bolshevism or Marxist council communism. Regarding social democracy: "Welfare" is a suspicious term for an avowedly Marxist party like the 1925 SPD (Germany). The Heidelberg Program (1925, http://www.marxists.org/deutsch/geschichte/deutsch/spd/1925/heidelberg.htm ) ...


2

Ever heard the phrase 'generals are always fighting the last war'? It's poignant applied to France and Britain's strategy during the Second World War, when they assumed, based on WW1, that the advantage would always be to the side using a defensive strategy. That's why they constructed the 'Maginot Line' and refused to attack Germany. Have you heard the ...


2

Short Answer: Jefferson was anti-Jacksonian. Madison was neither Jacksonian nor anti-Jacksonian. Longer Answer: By 1828, every serious contender for the presidency was a member of the Republican Party, so the supporters of Jackson called themselves “Friends of Jackson” or “Jacksonians” to differentiate themselves from the "Administration Republicans" or ...


2

Keynes' views were widely mis-represented by his disciples, notably Joan Robinson, who was well to the left of him. Keynes was actually "orthodox" in many ways. With his emphasis on "money," he was actually closer to Milton Friedman than to the "Keynesian" doctrine he is associated with. Where he differed from "orthodoxy" was in promoting deficit-financed ...


2

For a rather long while slavic peoples were a popular target for slave trade (hence the word "slave"), genocidal endeavours (such as Ottoman campaigns to Bulgaria and the Caucasus) and overlordship (such as the case of Czech republic under Austria, or, interestingly enough, Belarus under Poland). Pan-slavism developed as a form of multi-nationalism, if you ...


1

There certainly were other "pan" movements. German unification and the early expansion of Nazi Germany was driven by uniting all German speakers under one flag. Italy had a Italia Irridenta movement that looked to grabbing land from Austria Hungary. Mussolini parlayed some of this into the Fascist Party.


1

It boils down to simple mathematics. The US electoral system is mostly based on a winner-takes-all approach (BTW, that's mostly not written into the Constitution, but rather evolved ad-hoc, for similar mathematical reasons). In a winner-takes-all system, only the two biggest vote-getters will ever have meaningful influence, so it is natural for a dualism to ...


1

First, a caveat; religion isn't like Height or Eye Color - you can't measure it. And "religious leaders" don't have a position, they have a constellation of positions. Criteria #3 is, in my opinion, useless; any discussion of #3 is purely about opinion; there is no way to determine what an individual's metaphysical belief might be at any given moment. ...


1

Gustav I of Sweden switched from Catholicism to Protestantism. Initially it was a conflict over the arch bishop Gustav Trolle who Gustav exiled from Sweden as Trolle took sides for the king of Denmark and was regarded as a traitor to the Swedish people. At the Council of Västerås in 1527, the monarch was given the right to confiscate property donated to the ...



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