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It really depends on what you mean by "supposed to be practically in charge". Supposed by whom ? If the war rages on and the leader does not even know, then one can confidently say that the leader does not hold the actual power, which is instead in the hands of people who perfectly know that the leader is not actually leading. One situation which is similar ...


4

I am considering this a reference request for seminal works on "power" in historiography. The most well known recent theorist of "power" as a historical determinant is Foucault. In Foucault's work power seems to be organised by a historical context of possibilities of knowledge, an "episteme," that orders how people perceive and enact power. I do not ...


4

Hmm. That's a tricky one for many reasons, which I'll hope to elucidate: One bit of "low hanging fruit" you may want to explore first is taking a look at publications such as Time, Life, and Newsweek at your local library. While you're unlikely to find every gubernatorial, Senate, or House candidate there, you'll likely find pictures of some of the major ...


3

I assume your interest is primarily in Marxist social democracy as opposed to Marxist bolshevism or Marxist council communism. Regarding social democracy: "Welfare" is a suspicious term for an avowedly Marxist party like the 1925 SPD (Germany). The Heidelberg Program (1925, http://www.marxists.org/deutsch/geschichte/deutsch/spd/1925/heidelberg.htm ) ...


3

Mitt Romney is not a declared candidate for president. The length after a declaration to the presidency is always roughly 18 months, but the portion of campaigns after declaration have been going on a few months longer recently as well. The earliest declared candidacy in recent memory is Hillary Clinton in the 2008 campaign. She declared in late January ...


3

I wouldn't call it "unique," but Hitler adopted the "Keynesian" prescription of "pump-priming" a depressed economy through government spending. Even if it was for military spending (which to Hitler, was a form of "investment.") This started in 1933-34, and pre-dated Keynes' 1936 tome, "A General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money." This gave Nazi ...


2

Keynes' views were widely mis-represented by his disciples, notably Joan Robinson, who was well to the left of him. Keynes was actually "orthodox" in many ways. With his emphasis on "money," he was actually closer to Milton Friedman than to the "Keynesian" doctrine he is associated with. Where he differed from "orthodoxy" was in promoting deficit-financed ...


1

Turns out this fellow was a historian, keeping himself very busy after his retirement from public service by proceeding to write History of France between 1787 and 1825. Volume 1 was published in Paris in 1832; Volume 2 was published in Paris in 1832; Volume 3 was published in Paris in 1833. Update: Yes, the French government did supply pensions to some ...



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