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10

There are two issues here. The first is the old romantic idea that societies in ancient times went through some kind of matriarchal phase, which they presumably outgrew. This further implies that matriarchal setups are somehow less advanced (but perhaps more natural and/or idillic) than patriarchal ones. That has indeed been discredited. The other is the ...


7

Perhaps this is what you are looking for. In particular, look at the bottom graph in red, which is an estimate of global ice volume. The data was taken from oxygen measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Assuming they have their data and estimates close to right, it looks like our current worldwide volume of ice is not a record low for the Pleistocene. ...


6

Let me introduce you Alexander Marshack, who in his book "The Roots of Civilization: the Cognitive Beginning of Man’s First Art, Symbol and Notation", published in 1972, proves that notches and lines carved on certain Upper Paleolithic bone plaques were in fact notation systems, specifically lunar calendars notating the passage of time. It was developed by ...


5

Ah. The issue is Marija Gambutas, a well-respected anthropologist, archaeologist and scholar of linguistics. She did some groundbreaking work on the dissemination of Indo-European languages and the history of the baltic and slavic peoples, and was pretty near the top of her profession. Then she went a little nuts. She became involved in Second Wave ...


5

There are lots of dogs in paleolithic cave paintings. For example: Dogs can be used for hunting in the woods, like deer, but for hunting large herds in open areas like bison, they are not useful and are more of a nuisance than an aid. (Notice that in the above image the quarry is a deer, not an accident.) A recent journal article on the subject: New ...


5

in the current historical view has the onset of agriculture stimulate permanent settlements, and food surplus and storage allow the onset of specialized "careers" (including priests) This is incorrect. Permanent settlements and specialized societies require large food surpluses. This is generally produced by agriculture, but can also (in rare cases) be ...


5

The invention of writing, roughly in the 4th millennium BC divides human history in two major periods: Prehistory, the period before the invention of writing, and Recorded history, the period after the invention of writing. The divide isn't uniform for all civilizations, obviously not all civilizations invented writing at the same time. Furthermore some ...


3

One of the theories of how agriculture was invented (the most popular today, at least among archaeologists) say that the people of natufian culture grew to too big numbers during a period of good climate (younger dryas; Anubhav already explained that it's possible to get such food surplus by hunting with plenty of game) and they needed to survive while the ...


3

First of all let me say that this is an excellent and well researched question. A quick recap from Wikipedia is handy: Outside the mainland of Afro-Eurasia, [...] megafaunal extinctions followed a distinctive landmass-by-landmass pattern that closely parallels the spread of humans into previously uninhabited regions of the world, and which shows no ...


3

WHICH icecaps? If you mean glaciers, WHICH glaciers? Some no doubt extend further, some less far, some didn't exist before the last ice age, for example. As to the polar icecaps, the northern one sits entirely on top of water, if floats, so there's no way to know if it was larger or smaller in the past beyond where we have photographic record The southern ...


3

I'm not exactly sure how to answer this question because there seems to be a hundred factors involved, including the definition of healthy. Healthy may mean: to survive certain extinction events; to be able to pass on the genes to the next generation (to reproduce); to survive a long time; to be able to successfully compete with conspecifics; etc etc. Then ...


3

From a technical taxonomical point of view, it is impossible to have domestic dogs depicted in a Paleolithic cave painting, simply because domestication of plants and animals is one of the features of the Neolithic. So by definition, any art that depicts a canid is either Neolithic, or it is showing a wild relative such as a wolf. Now this is a bit overly ...


3

Are you completely sure the Philippines' amount of fossils are unusually small? I know of no less than 2 anthropological finds there, the oldest dating back nearly 50,000 years. That isn't bad at all, for a place that would have required boats (or a very unusual accident) to reach. Its thought that no hominid had boats before that time, so any significantly ...


1

If you are asking about rhyme: Ancient Sanskrit, Avestan, Greek, Latin, Germanic, Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew etc etc. all have poetry, but none of these use rhyme as a poetic tool.You need to separate the concepts of "poetry" and "rhyme" if you want a reasonable answer.


1

This paper in Nature is fascinating - unfortunately, the chemical studies described were not performed on ancient East Asians, but it lines up with archaeological and anthropological evidence worldwide. There have only been two studies of Palaeolithic modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens. A study of the isotope values of humans from the late Upper ...


1

Maybe; it depends a lot on how you define "species". A 'species' is generally understood as population where the all males and females can mate to produce fertile offspring -- at the very least, for large mammals. So for example, horses and donkeys can be mated, but mules (each the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse) are not fertile. However ...



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