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After Mongols lost control of China (end of Yuan dynasty), there were many struggles between Mongols and Chinese as well as different Mongol tribes. These struggles weakened the integration among Mongols. After a successful but short-lived unification attempt by Dayan Khan, a more organized disintegration took place giving birth to Khalkha Mongols (formerly ...


7

Could you please provide example of where Qing China is called "feudal"? Most likely, it was a common (not historian) usage, or an abuse of the term. Quoting Wikipedia: Outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is normally used only by analogy (called semi-feudal), most often in discussions of Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes medieval ...


5

It depends on how you define "Manchu." The Sibe (Xibe) were NOT the same as the Jurchen tribe, the one that is generally regarded as "Manchu." What IS true is that the Sibe lived in the center of present day Manchuria, next to the Jurchens. By that very loose definition, they are "Manchu." The Jurchens defeated the Sibe (and others) in 1593, and took over ...


3

While it is not that similar to a classic medieval feudalism of Europe, it still is bearing a striking similarity to European absolutism. Absolutism is characterized by rise of state bureaucracy, rise of professional armies, appointed officials ruling the territories rather than hereditary nobles, extensive codified laws. The timeline of Qing Dynasty also ...


2

"Inner Mongolia," now part of China's "Manchuria," had been absorbed by the Manchus in the 1630s, even before they conquered China in the 1640s. So it became part of "greater China." (Outer) Mongolia became a tributary state of the Qing dynasty in the 1690s, but retained its "integrity" as a geographical unit. After the Chinese Revolution of 1911, and the ...


1

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 was the equivalent of the French Revolution (of 1789). Both were directed against "archaic" monarchial structures considered "feudalistic." That was not technically true in either case. But both monarchies contained "traces" of feudal practice that were the object of scorn. To take just one example, one of the targets of the ...



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