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12

Reconstruction was dead in some states almost as soon as it started, and it was completely undone nationwide by the compromise that led to the election of Rutherford B. Hayes as President in 1876. The lasting social damage that the song talks about should more accurately be associated with the demise of Reconstruction. Here are some legacies of the time ...


9

I believe Benjamin Isaac's interpretation of the quote as racism is horse manure. The quote itself, as presented in your OP, is clearly an argument that the climate and laws prevalent in Asia at the time make for a cowardly and torpid culture, not the race of those individuals. This is bolstered by this point made with vigour by the author (my emphasis): ...


9

Yes. The perception in the Kennedy administration is that there was no alternative but to appoint pro-segregationist anti-civil rights district judges to most southern districts. Both Senators from the state in which a judge would serve must approve of the appointment before the full Senate even considers the appointment. Inevitably, then, district judges ...


7

As feudalism died and common men began to build themselves up in business, large scale sheep farming was a very popular way to riches. Sheep are cheap individually and prolific breeders, so men bred more and more sheep to expand and with the discovery and settlement of Australia and New Zealand, we now had great swathes of land ideally suited to carrying ...


7

There is a history of anti-Chinese sentiment in Indonesia, but even taking that into consideration, the violence of 1998 was unusually extreme and virulent, attributed to the encouragement of the army and the Suharto regime. Jemma Purdey's Anti-Chinese Violence in Indonesia, 1996–1999 (2006) examines large-scale violence of the kind exemplfieid by the 1998 ...


6

Given the totalitarian nature of the SU, information on such a blatant ethnic discrimination was not officially confirmed (duh!) and spreading it, in fact, could land one in jail. This accounts for the lack of "official sources". However, this was common knowledge among Jewish "abiturients" (as the contenders for college admission were called) and their ...


6

Is there a reliable objective study that addresses this issue? No. There are several dimensions that would have to be addressed. I can hint at what they are, with the intention of exposing some of the inherent conflicts of such an inquiry. First, there is no doubt that various laws and court cases that were established in the 1950s and 1960s ended ...


4

"Race" and "racism" are modern inventions. I have never seen any ancient or medieval writer identifying anybody by race. Actually we can only conjecture to which race some of their personages belonged. The common identifications were by place of birth, religion, social class. And gender, of course (I am not sure what you mean by "sexual identity"). ...


4

I will address race in the west European middle ages, since identity is just too broad to be answered. First of all it is very important to put yourself in the position of a medieval villein, which is what most people were. They usually did not leave the village where they were born. They would know their immediate family, some of the seigneur's officials, ...


4

I can witness personally that such discrimination existed at Moscow State University. It was kind of an open secret: most people knew about it, but not discussed in public. If you are looking for personal accounts by prominent mathematicians and scientists who were rejected by Moscow State University, that's relatively easy to do just by googling. Here's ...


3

Is it racism when Kyrgiz people kill Uzbeks? They are both of the same biological race, and both Muslims of the same faith but they kill each other because of their ethnicity. This kind of "racism" was widespread in the ancient times. But I doubt the skin color meant much in old times because at those times people could not travel large distances and those ...


3

If such discrimination existed, it certainly would be secret. We can judge about it only from rumors. The paper deals with filtering allegedly happened on a faculty of fundamental mathematics, where Chineese-Russian mathematician Alexander Hanyevich Shen (to whom the cited list is attributed) is working (I met him personally several times). Since he is a ...


3

The youngest that I can find evidence of was Irving Hanchett, executed in Florida at 15 on 5/6/1910. Irving Hanchett, barely 15 years of age, was executed by Florida in 1910. Only three months elapsed between his crime (the murder of a teenaged girl who rejected his advances) and his execution. Hanchett had just moved to Florida from Connecticut ...


3

To qualify as “Aryan” you had to prove that none of your four grandparents was Jewish. In practice, this meant that you had to prove that they were baptised Christians. If you had a Jewish great-grandparent you would still qualify as “Aryan” if that great-grandparent had converted to Christianity and had his or her children baptised. So the Nazi “race” ...


3

While there was an idealzed physical appearance of the "master race" (blonde hair, blue eyes, ect.), it was not practical to use that as a basis for discrimination because too few people would have passed - most importantly not Hitler himself! Instead, the Aryan certificate required to keep full citizen's rights was based entirely on ancestry: if your ...


3

I wondered the same thing a few times so I looked it up: Eeny, meeny, miny, moe I thought the original version was the one using the N word, actually the oldest known version (1815, New York) goes something like: Hana, man, mona, mike; Barcelona, bona, strike; Hare, ware, frown, vanac; Harrico, warico, we wo, wac. It evolved into the more recognizable: ...


2

Yes, public opinion matches up with anti-miscegenation laws, except for along the Pacific Coast. First, let's look at a map of anti-miscegenation laws: So the northeast and north midwest had no such laws in the entire 20th century. The West mostly had these laws during the mid-20th century, but repealed them before the Loving decision in 1967. The entire ...


2

The poster wanted to know about the negative effects of Reconstruction, so I am answering that question. The only direct long term negative effect of Reconstruction era policy I know of is that the South still pays exploitative railway fees to ship goods to other sections of the nation. Following the Civil War, the US was divided into 5 freight rate ...


2

As a Chinese-American, I feel that the status of such people has become more "equal" in my lifetime (which began shortly after the middle of the twentieth century). And there seems to have been a correlation that and the way that Americans looked at CHINA. When my parents came to the United States around 1950, China was considered a "backward" or "Third ...


1

Boston Massachusetts was the Last to desegregate. Mississippi was forced to desegregate at gun point before the Schools in the North were forced to by riots. The riots in Boston, 1974-1976, were Worse than any in Mississippi.


1

There was very pronounced racism among Arabs, among others. While the dates are hard to pin down, a LOT of the tales in "1001 Nights" have pretty racist things in them.



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