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10

Short Answer The second one. Long Answer Many historians believe that at the very beginning King Henry VIII was driven more by personal reasons than theological reasons. Quite a lot of good sources are cited in this wikipedia article and this one. It all started with Henry's troubles with Queen Catherine --his first wife. Henry was obsessed with a male ...


9

That Poland avoided internal wars of religion can indeed be attributed to the religious tolerance of the state at this time, a tolerance that stretches back a long time. And this has to do with it's position where many of it's neighbouring countries were not Catholic. To the east the Kievan Rus adopted Orthodoxy, and further north the areas now known as ...


8

According to Ivan Gobry's Martin Luther, Luther thought that Sin is undefeatable, for lust will inexorably take residencde in each of us, therefore, to condemn oneself to celibacy, intending to please God, is to engage in self-deception and hypocrisy. Gobry also says that Luther believed the requirement that priests and monks stay celibate to be an ...


5

The last major pagan group in Europe was the Sami in northern Scandinavia. Although missionaries traveled north and churches were built aready in the 16th-17th century, the sami were predominantly pagan until forced christianization that started in the 18th century. (1720 in Norway, late 18th century in Sweden). Although officially Christian since the 18th ...


4

An answer to the question in your title would be the 14th/15th century and relate to the Duchy of Lithuania. For an account of the causes see eg. W Urban: The Conversion of Lithuania (1987). EDIT: It could be that the question is really about the end of Catholicism is Northern Europe. If so my answer is this: Catholicism was not rejected all over ...


3

Two major reasons for this : The introduction of printing through Johannes Gutenberg, and the Reformation which implied that every Christian should be able to read the Bible, which made reading accessible and interesting. The Reformation spread first among craftsmen and merchants who could read. The progressive introduction of paper in the 14th, 15th and ...


3

Poland was indeed involved in the 30 Years War, sending death squads to aid Habsburg allies in Bohemia and getting decked when Bohemia sicced the Ottoman Empire on them. At this time, Poland-Lithuania was far more unified politically under the Magnates and royalty than the Holy Roman Empire... and nobody kid themselves, the 30 Years War was a political as ...


3

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Lollard means: "From M[iddle] [Dutch] lollaerd, lit. 'mumbler, mutterer', f[rom] lollen to mutter, mumble". This was a pejorative term to refer to a CLASS of people that held certain religious beliefs, as opposed to holders of the beliefs themselves. Specifically, it referred to "uneducated" Englishmen (in the ...


3

The name was derived from lollium, a tare, but was used in Flanders early in the fourteenth century to refer to one as a "hypocrite". Others took it to mean "idlers" and connected it with to loll. In the fourteenth century the word "lollard" was used to represent a number of terms. People who were identified as anti-clerical and wishing to disendow the ...


3

New technologies build on previous technologies, so technological growth is cumulative. The rate at which it is developed, and hence accumulated, depends upon the number of people who can work on producing new technologies. The number of people engaged depends on technologies that give a proportion of the population the time to do things that are not ...


2

There's just more scientists around today. Population has grown tremendously over the past 200 years. On top of that, our means, tools, and time available to spend on research has grown too. And much faster communication allows ideas to spread much faster, allowing other scientists to build on what you did immediately, rather than 10 years later. At the ...


2

Larger population means that even if the percentage of people with the necessary skills and interests is the same, the total number of people with those skills and interests is much greater. Combined with the ever increasing base of scientific data on which to build (as pointed out by Andy) this causes an increase in the potential for scientific progress ...


2

God said in Genesis 2:18, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him." Paul said in 1 Corinthians 7:1-2, "Now for the matters you wrote about: 'It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman.' But since sexual immorality is occurring, each man should have sexual relations with his own wife..." (Ever notice ...


1

Your question identifies, and hypothesizes a correlation between distance from Rome and pro (or anti) Catholic leanings. Under this hypothesis, Poland ought to be a "conflicted" country because of its "middle" distance. In seeking a correlation (that may be false), the hypothesis overlooks causal variables that affected other "middle distance" countries ...



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