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"because it was there". If the Moors were going to invade anyplace under the leadership of their Arab overlords it would have to be either Spain to the north or parts of Africa to the southwest, south, and southeast - and those regions of Africa were bordered by or actually in the bare and barren Sahara desert. Because Spain was wealthier than the Sahara, ...


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They were protecting their people who had been invaded by incoming Alans and Visigoths. People need to realize that it was all dark people everywhere and the "Europe" became white only after germanic tribes then called by other names came and conquered. Alans, Vandals, Barabarians,...People forget that Spain and Africa were attached at one time. The Moors ...


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You are not telling the whole story here. Mati Das was not executed in isolation, but as part of campaign against the 9th Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur. Aurangzeb had arrested Tegh Bahadur and tried to get him to renounce his beliefs by torturing him for weeks. When that didn't work, Aurangzeb tried to convince him by executing his close friends and disciples. He ...


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The first relatively wide knowledge of Jews and the Jew religion came as a result of the Babylon enslaving. 536 BC. Judaism became widely known in the christian times, after wide spreading of Jews as the result of the last Jew-Roman war. 135 AC. But the times when several non-Jew nations accepted the Judaism came even later - about 7-8 cent AC. Khasars are ...


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Around the beginning of the Christian era there were people called “God fearers”, who were gentiles (non-Jews) who worshiped the God of the Jews, but were not circumcised and did not follow the Law of Moses. (See for example Acts 13:16 and 13:26). These “God fearers” seem to have been the prime target of Paul’s preaching. They should be seen in the context ...


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The first few Islamic rulers in India were more focused on land expansion than religious ideals. When the 3rd generation emperor,Akbar, arrived in power, he was famed for promoting religious peace and even creating his own religion, a mix between many different religions. He even married a Hindu princess. After that, most of the Islamic rule in India ...


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First of all, it should be noted that Norse mythology was only the longest-lasting offshoot of a much wider spread Germanic mythology. If we restrict ourselves to Norse contemporary sources, then there are only short inscriptions and pictures. For the Germanic mythology, there is one contemporary non-Christian source that must be mentioned: Tacitus. In his ...


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Maybe you are confusing situations: Currently, the idea of "Reconquista" is just held to talk about the chronological and geographical frame, but the idea of a "managed" process to take all of the Iberian Peninsula back from the Muslim rulers is generally discredited as a "post-facto" fabrication (giving a "national idea" of "proto-Spain" to the several ...


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It depends who is talking. As @Alex pointed in his comment Serious historians do not use the words "good", "bad", "evil" etc. These notions depend on time and culture. So when talking about different time and different culture, a scientist should avoid them. What is important, the process of taking back Spain (and Portugal) is called not a "crusade", ...


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Asking for references is off topic. There are substantial differences in ancient manuscripts and modern received texts of the pentateuch. It is not a question of one or two "passages". There are different competing readings throughout all the books and they are extensive. I have examined photostatic fragments of some of the scrolls and minor differences ...


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The answer to your question is: no, there are no surviving unmistakably Ebionite sources. What we know about Ebionites comes entirely from hostile Christian sources. There is however an early Greek book called “The Homilies of Clement”, a fictitious autobiography of St Clement of Rome. As has been recognised for a long time now, many of the doctrines ...


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My Understanding of the Factors that Led to the Rapid Rise and Eventual Success of Christianity: I think there were several factors that predisposed Christianity1 to rapid, widespread growth. It began near the nexus of 3 continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. It began during the Roman Empire, while the Empire was still relatively strong and robust, ...


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Aside from some short inscriptions on stone, no. The received texts of the sagas generally all date to after about 1000 A.D. and were written or copied at times when Christianization had taken hold. That said, however, it is important to remember that it is likely that the received texts may, in many cases be close copies of manuscripts written during ...


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The mere "belief" in something other than self, as guidance over your actions is religious dogma. Can be dogma-light, but religious none the less. Pagan, animist, sunworshipper or the statue of a fat man are all religious. Suffice to say the modern "atheist" is a sycophant living off the civilization that was hacked out from barbarians (likely pagans) who ...


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See Textes pour les cahiers du sud (1987) and Ecritures cathares (1968) by Rene Nelli. The most famous tract is the The Provencal Ritual of the Albigeois published in facsimile by Jean Cledat:



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