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It would be interesting to make a list of principal ancient texts and how each of them reached us. And make a statistics. (Perhaps someone knows such a list?) Many of the texts that I know exist in both Arabic and Greek medieval versions. Before this list is made, I want to express my doubts about Tyler Durden answer. He only gives examples of literary work ...


5

The "Greco-Roman" culture did not depend on Arabs to preserve it. Relatively few Roman works of science and literature are known only from Arab sources/translations. The literature of Greece and Rome was transmitted, as you said by the Byzantines, but also by many other sources including the Irish, the churches of Asia Minor and the Levant, the Romans ...


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The growth of literacy was a gradual process, but certainly during the Reformation (1520-1550) literacy grew significantly due to the wider availability of printed materials and proliferation of printing presses, which made books much cheaper. Most education was centered on the monasteries, which were occupied by people known as "friars" (brothers). Friars ...



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