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In the Greek and Roman Era there were a number of sources in Europe tapped for gold.. These were often alluvial (alluvium is loose soil or sediment, usually around water) deposits near the mouths of rivers in Lydia, Greece, Egypt, and Asia Minor. Later more standard mines were found in the Balkans. Rome found similar river deposits in North Italy, Spain, ...
Half the Old World's gold around the medieval period came from Mali: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mali_Empire#Economy Credit also to many many hours playing Civilisation 4 as Mansa Musa for knowing this one!
Europe during the middle ages mainly just made use of gold that was already in circulation, because, as you said, the trade with Africa was disrupted. It didn't matter much however -economically- because the currency shifted to silver and copper in all but the byzantine empire. And both were in ample supply. As Alex already mentioned, eastern Europe had ...
I'll add that the Carpathian mountains in Eastern Europe have been a very rich source of gold in the middle ages and before. The Roman conquering of Dacia in 106 AD - modern day Romania is said to have revitalized the Roman empire economy and prolonged its life by at least 100 years (160 metric tons of pure gold and 300 metric tons of silver were brought to ...
I know that there are gold mines in Russia, Germany/France/Switzerland area, so it may have come from there source
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