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Because this question has been edited many times I have to clarify that I am answering the version that asks: What caused the Iranian 1979 revolution to become Islamic? Short Answer (more suited for causal conversations in bars): It was easier to portray the Shah as anti Islamic ruler in league with the Western powers bent on destroying Islam in an Islamic ...


9

The Cuban revolution succeeded because it was a broad-based revolutionary movement, not a "Communist" revolution (initially, that is). For instance, in the July 26th (1953) uprising against the government's military barracks (the equivalent of John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry before the U.S. civil war), the Castroites were only one of several ...


9

Largely from Hinduism and Jainism. Adding onto this was his exposure to Buddhist and Theosophical thought while he was a student in London. His eventual philosophy of Satyagraha came to fruition from his experiences in South Africa.


8

The economic effects of the Cuban Revolution were somewhat of a mixed bag, and depending on the timeline you are interested in the immediate impact was negative, whereas on a longer timeline it was more positive. The following paraphrases, and quotes relevant parts from Jose Pérez's work Cuba: Between Reform & Revolution Initially the revolution ...


8

The person that comes to mind is Getulio Vargas of Brazil. He first took power in 1930, in a military-backed coup, after being defeated in a Presidential race, ousting the outgoing President and President-elect. He ruled as a virtual dictator until 1945, at which time he was forced to step down from the Presidency, and allow democratic elections, because his ...


7

From Hinduism into which he was born. He was influenced by Jainism later. Jainism borrowed the concept of "ahimsa" or non-violence from Hinduism. Jains adopted and followed it with much greater rigor.


7

There are too many examples of this kind. Secession of the USA from Great Britain American civil war Civil war in Russia in 1918-1922, particularly, secessions of Ukraine, Georgia and other territories. Dessolution of the USSR, particularly secessions of the Baltic republics, as well as Russian SFSR itself. Secession of Chechen republic from Russia. ...


7

Climate Change and Natural Disasters A strong factor in the dissolution of states, which can be observed all across history, is environmental change and disasters. A few caveats: I can't think of any examples in which environmental factors have brought about the direct and extremely rapid demise of a state (although local polities have certainly been ...


6

I'm Cuban (1984- leave cuba in 2009), and I'll try to be the most unbiased possible. In Cuba exist two currencies the CUP AND CUC Local citizens are paid in CUP. 24 CUP = 1 CUC 1 CUC = 1.10 USD The avg salary is 500 CUP ~ 20 USD by month The health system and all kind of Education include elemental, Bachelor, Master, etc are free. 1/2 Kg (1 ...


6

Probably the more appropriate answer is strike actions in general, as also Gandhi did a long hunger strikes himself. Labour strikes date back at least to the strikes of Deir el-Medina: In about the 25th year the reign of Ramses III (c. 1170 BCE) the laborers were so exasperated by delays in supplies they threw down their tools and walked off the job ...


6

I found another hint in Histoire du dimanche: de 1700 à nos jours by Robert Beck page 154 on bottom. See the following google books link. Le surplus en travail que provoque le rythme décadaire, pourrait également constituer une raison du rejet dont le nouveau temps est la victime. [...] Les instigateur des lois sur l'observation des décadis de l'an ...


6

The French Revolution occurred from 1789 to 1799. The period covered by Les Miserable which is the June Rebellion of 1832. Articles on the June Rebellion indicate the restored king was Louis Phillipe.


5

I found this artice from the Atlantic that addresses this topic and give the recent events in Egypt as an example of a successful non-violent movement. There are similar examples going on currently in other Middle Eastern countries, as well as examples of some that turned to violence, such as Lybia. There is also a web site for an organization called the ...


5

The ship was the SS Ypiranga, which was indeed a German ship (although it was at that point a cargo-steamer, not yet a passenger liner). Díaz departed from the port of Veracruz on May 31st, 1911 bound for the French port of Le Havre with a stop Havana. The event was reported in the June 1st edition of the New York Times: VERA CRUZ, May 31. -- ...


4

What happens after "widespread social chaos" is difficult to predict as it often depends on local conditions combined with regional and international considerations. There are often two requirements that a nation needs to fulfill after any internal disorder, those being economic sufficiency and a need to establish a system of just governance. In many ...


4

Going out on a limb here, and feel free to disagree, but what about the growth of the early Church? The growth of the Church in early centuries was a form of independence movement, inasmuch as early Christians simply wanted to practice their faith without fear of persecution. Also, the growth of the church (emphasis on the small "c"), meaning the local ...


4

While Indian traditions have certainly influenced Gandhi very much, one mustn't neglect the large influence that Western (broadly construed) thought had on him. For instance, he was very influenced by Tolstoy. I am quoting the review of a new book that compares Gandhi to the Stoics: Sorabji explains that Gandhi's biggest direct inspirations were John ...


4

This looks a lot like an invitation to a No True Scottsman argument. For example, I could point out that The Velvet Revolution, The People Power Revolution, The Tunisian Revolution, the Egyptian Revolultion of 2011, and many many others were all carried out almost entirely by non-violent means. However, revolutions are messy things, with thousands of ...


4

Has its accuracy changed since? North Vietnam won over South Vietnam. Taliban won over Northern Alliance prior to US getting involved in 2001 Hezbollah effectively won against everyone (forced Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, and squeezed 'liberals' out of Lebanese politics). Depending on your definition of liberal, theorcats won in Iran in 1979. ...


3

The effects of the Cuban revolution has been wholly negative. Not only was it immediately highly negative for the economy, as any civil war is, the planned economy instigated by the communist government in Cuba has, as all planned economy, stifled the Cuban economy and doomed the country to poverty. During the early 20th century Cuba was a prosperous ...


3

In direct answer to your question, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine comes to mind as another example of a nonviolent protest that was very successful without a violent analog. This is definitely interpreting 'what does the history say about this' a bit broadly, but it seemed like some notes on the nature of violent protest movements might be in order. ...


3

You are describing a chaotic situation. Almost by definition, how things develop out of a chaotic situation cannot be predicted. For what tiny bit it's worth, here are a few things I think history (both old and recent) can tell us. When you finally let everyone have their say (vote), rather than just the activated people in the streets, you are likely ...


3

In Libya they completely ousted the regime and they are in an intermediate phase towards implementing democracy. In Egypt they namely ousted the official dictator, but de facto nothing changed: the military are still in power and are oppressing the people much more than before. The protesters must certainly hope to somehow remove the military from power.


3

After the Mazdak revolution in Persia in 6th cent(with slogan: slaves, ground and women must belong to everybody), the population was practically annihilated, so Arabians came almost to the empty place later. After the 184—204 riot in China there remained about 7 out of 50 millions of population. After French revolutions of 1789-1871 the France became a ...


3

The following snippets are from two articles that describe what role the media may have had in the outcome of the "Arab Spring" So, Was Facebook Responsible for the Arab Spring After All? ... Pollock's portrayal of Egyption activism displays strategies and tools similar to Tunisia's. Of course, that's no accident: The Egyptian activists were ...


3

Nobody knew that Castro was communist until after he came to power. I was in Cuba in 1958 (or'57 - I am not sure) and everyone was rooting for Castro. He was largely financed by the Cuban middle class; businesses and shop owners. Nobody had a clue at that time.


3

This is a homework-style question and should be tagged as such. That said, comparing the wiki articles for the 2011 Egyptian Revolution and the Russian Revolution, we can come up with a few basic differences. One key difference is the scale and scope of the results. For instance, Wikipedia notes some of the concessions given in 2011: Ouster of President ...


3

While there are many similarities in the causes (high unemployment, poverty, a feeling of opression from the regime etc.), the mechanics are somewhat different. I would say that in the Russian revolution of 1917, the people had a leader, an elite, and an ideology of how the state should be after the revolution. While it is true, in hindsight, that the ...


3

The wikipedia page includes an extensive reference list of further reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution#Further_reading Here is the reading list from USC's class The Age of the French Revolution: Jeremy Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution Laura Mason and Tracy Rizzo, eds., The French Revolution: A Document Collection ...


3

Indian rebellion of 1857 was partly caused by rapid technological changes brought about by colonization. This page has an explanation. EIC soldiers and other Indians would view many of the technological changes with trepidation. Steam trains and steam ships seemed to be some ungodly creature that defied the laws of nature. The new communications systems ...



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