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11

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


9

Economy of the period is analysed in the book by Bryan Ward-Perkins, Fall of Rome and the end of civilization (Oxford UP, 2006).The author gives abundant evidence that the fall of the empire was accompanied by a collapse of economy, material production and infrastructure in general. The evidence is based on contemporary accounts and archeological data. ...


9

First of all, I would not trust Wikipedia numbers about Roman Empire. Roman empire existed for 4 centuries, and the things did not stay unchanged. Second, we have no reliable statistics for most periods. Even the population of the Empire in various periods is not clear, and estimates widely vary. Third, you cannot compare ancient economy with modern economy, ...


4

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


3

There's a good chance that they can't be identified because they don't exist. Suetonius paints a nice picture of Titus, who changed from a suspicious killer when he was acting as his father's enforcer to the best Emperor ever the second he took office. And maybe that's all so..he only lived a few years after that and was occupied with several disasters. So ...


3

While I agree with the other answer givers that you're unlikely to find reliable information on Roman imperial spending budgets, I think we can usefully work back from modern spending figures to show the disparity. For example, below are some of the major spending areas of the United States budget, and a note about Roman equivalence: Social Security is a ...


2

The methodological caveats listed by @Alex are all true. I'd also add that there was no notion of state credit so everything had to be financed out of revenues. And of course, the very notion of what government is responsible for was quite different in antiquity - the ancients were very far from the idea of a welfare state. Perhaps early 19th century England ...


2

There is no consensus among historians as to what exact reasons lead to the downfall of the Roman Empire. There are varying different theories on this matter, but at least Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, gives a well-researched and more importantly, well-referenced account. According to him, barbarians from the ...


1

The change in number and frequency of the suffect consuls just reflects the changing of the job of consul with the Principate. Under the Republic, beyond ennobling your family, allowing you to run Rome for a year, and getting the year named for you, consulship was the bridge to a plum job administering a province where you could collect money and contacts ...



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