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43

I take your question as meaning: when did Romans realize that they were living in a monarchy ? (As opposed to the aristocratic regime previously known as "republic".) We must first realize that there cannot be a single point in time, because the Roman people did not operate under a uniform and shared mind. Throughout the whole antiquity, three quarters of ...


12

Disclaimer: As has been repeatedly pointed out, this is a gradual shift that cannot really be pinpointed. Moreover, in my opinion, it hugely depends on how one interpret any of the several parts in this question. Duringthe Principate period (27 B.C. – A.D. 284), emperors carefully maintained the façades of Republican government. The senate continued ...


11

I will answer for the first question the Gladiatorial games were free for everyone to watch? Not really , quoting from wikipedia ( I dont know how to re-write it in my own words so Ill just paste it ) Towards the end of the Republic, Cicero (Murena, 72–3) still describes gladiator shows as ticketed — their political usefulness was served by ...


6

It is a bronze lasanum, a very expensive piece of equipment. The way it works is you put charcoal and some oil/wood in it and light it which makes a hot fire (as you can see flames are coming out of it). You then spit meat and put it in the lasanum to roast the meat. This particular lasanum seems to have a arch allowing it to be hung and the man is hanging ...


5

The book "Those About to Die" by Daniel Mannix (Panther 1960) relates that women were among the spectators, including ...noble ladies on the podium [who] often lost their heads. When one handsome young Myrmillo, only a few weeks before a simple farmboy living on the slopes of Apennine, paraded before the podium with his bloody sword upraised a ...


5

The shift was indeed gradual and it was in the interests of the regime, when it was still taking root, to dissimulate that the Republic was intact and the emperor was just the first among equals. Augustus was a past master at this sort of game; Tiberius tried to play it too but with ill results. Later emperors felt less need to do so. In fact, I am in ...


3

The first emperor to take the monarchical title was Heraclius. After defeating the Persian Empire in 627 he took the title "King of Kings" which prevuously belonged to Persian king Khosrau II. As such, starting from 629 he ordered to style him Basileos Basileion "King of kings" or simply "Basileos" "king". This continued with all consecutive emperors. ...


1

Games were not normally free. Sometimes emperors would sponsor events as a way of winning popularity with the public. Julius Caesar was, I believe, the first to do this. Late in the empire the emperor subsidized games out of the public purse. Women did attend. The Romans had no problem with women appearing in public. In fact, not only did women attend, ...



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