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Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


8

The scholarly consensus is almost unanimous on this point: Luke is simply wrong. There are a number of reasons why the account provided by Luke cannot be taken seriously; these reasons include contradictions between Luke and the external historical evidence, Luke's obvious misunderstanding of how censuses were conducted, Luke's misunderstanding of ...


6

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


6

It is Vespasian. In the Life of Vespasian from Chapter 18 of Book 8 of The Twelve Cesars by Suetonius, it says: Some one offering to convey some immense columns into the Capitol at a small expense by a mechanical contrivance, he rewarded him very handsomely for his invention, but would not accept his service, saying, "Suffer me to find maintenance ...


4

I presume you're not talking about the Byzantine half of the Roman Empire here. Those ties are well known. So, taking the subject line of your question, Romans of the western half of the Roman Empire meeting Vikings would be impossible because Rome fell before the label Viking was generally applied to Scandinavians. Taking the text of your question, the ...


3

The frontline was still quite long: a maniple typically consisted of 120 soldiers arrayed in 3 ranks of 40 men when engaged in battle. each line had about 10 maniples and neighbouring maniples had a space of a maniple between them. That makes the frontline 19×40 = 760 men wide. Lets say that each man had a "personal space" of 1,5 meter (which is not ...


3

Well, the Menorah was seen later (according to one testimony): Most likely, the menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455 CE, and taken to their capital, Carthage. The Byzantine army under General Belisarius might have removed it in 533 and brought it to Constantinople. According to Procopius, it was carried through the ...


3

Ireland isn't "only a few miles away". The shortest sea crossings from Wales are Fishguard–Rosslare and Holyhead–Dublin, which are both 60 miles (100km). Scotland is closer: Portpatrick–Bangor is about 20 miles (35km). South-west England is about twice as far from Ireland as Wales is. The Romans never had sustained control of Scotland ...


2

Leaving aside the questions whether Scandinavians during the first centuries CE could be called "vikings", the answer is that they did encounter them. The Cimbrians were a people who invaded Italy and fought the Romans about 100 BCE. The Cimbrians are said to have come from the Cimbrian peninsula, identified with Jylland in Denmark. As for Roman invasions ...


2

The god in question is Dionysus (or Bacchus, if you're from Rome), god of the grape harvest and wine, among other things. The geographical origins of Dionysus are Greek. From the Mycenaean Linear B tablets, we know that a "DI-WO-NI-SO-JO" was known (at least) in Pylos before 1200 B.C. (source) Homer's relative neglect of Dionysus, coupled with the ...


2

There is always hope of recovering lost works. Recently a new fragment of Aristotle was recovered in Oxyrhynncus. Lost works are sometimes found in newly discovered tombs and trash middens. Also, they are sometimes discovered as palimpsests. In other cases, important works are discovered hidden away unnoticed in libraries. A typical example of this was the ...


1

OP states that "etymology above suggests that only certain Roman citizens were bound to moenus." - I don't follow that line of reasoning. I think there is insufficient evidence here to reach a strong conclusion about anything. Having said that, here is the way I would read these definitions: I concur that only certain citizens were bound to moenus. I ...



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