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44

I take your question as meaning: when did Romans realize that they were living in a monarchy ? (As opposed to the aristocratic regime previously known as "republic".) We must first realize that there cannot be a single point in time, because the Roman people did not operate under a uniform and shared mind. Throughout the whole antiquity, three quarters of ...


14

I will answer the first question the Gladiatorial games were free for everyone to watch? Not really, quoting from Wikipedia (I don't know how to re-write it in my own words so I'll just paste it) Towards the end of the Republic, Cicero (Murena, 72–3) still describes gladiator shows as ticketed — their political usefulness was served by inviting ...


14

Disclaimer: As has been repeatedly pointed out, this is a gradual shift that cannot really be pinpointed. Moreover, in my opinion, it hugely depends on how one interpret any of the several parts in this question. Duringthe Principate period (27 B.C. – A.D. 284), emperors carefully maintained the façades of Republican government. The senate continued ...


14

Why travel to one's birthplace for a Roman census? Well Exactly. I suspect since there was a lot of prophecy that needed fulfilling, something had to emerge from the convenience dimension to make Jesus both Nazarene and born in Bethlehem. The article "Serious Problems With Luke's Census" is a well cited article on how the census story is dubious. It ...


12

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


12

Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


10

Economy of the period is analysed in the book by Bryan Ward-Perkins, Fall of Rome and the end of civilization (Oxford UP, 2006).The author gives abundant evidence that the fall of the empire was accompanied by a collapse of economy, material production and infrastructure in general. The evidence is based on contemporary accounts and archeological data. ...


9

First of all, I would not trust Wikipedia numbers about Roman Empire. Roman empire existed for 4 centuries, and the things did not stay unchanged. Second, we have no reliable statistics for most periods. Even the population of the Empire in various periods is not clear, and estimates widely vary. Third, you cannot compare ancient economy with modern economy, ...


8

The scholarly consensus is almost unanimous on this point: Luke is simply wrong. There are a number of reasons why the account provided by Luke cannot be taken seriously; these reasons include contradictions between Luke and the external historical evidence, Luke's obvious misunderstanding of how censuses were conducted, Luke's misunderstanding of ...


8

It is a bronze lasanum, a very expensive piece of equipment. The way it works is you put charcoal and some oil/wood in it and light it which makes a hot fire (as you can see flames are coming out of it). You then spit meat and put it in the lasanum to roast the meat. This particular lasanum seems to have an arch allowing it to be hung and the man is hanging ...


7

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


7

The notion of "free speech", as we understand it today did not exist in the Roman empire. The authors you cite probably mean " crimen laesae majestatis", which English Wikipedia translates as "lese majeste". This was a law which was probably introduced under Augustus, and then revoked and re-introduced under various princepces. The first person who revoked ...


7

The Western Empire did not use the army because they did not have an army to speak of. In 406, the Vandals passed over the frozen Rhine and rampaged through Gaul. Imperial forces in Britain joined a usurper and there was a three way combat under way. No help there. The Imperial Generalissmo, Stilicho, was working on and off with Alaric to regain the ...


7

Definitely, Crimea (Chersonesos) or some place in its surrounding. Crimea's south coast was part of Roman Empire in 47 BC - 330 AD, and also a part of the Byzantine Empire later.


6

The book "Those About to Die" by Daniel Mannix (Panther 1960) relates that women were among the spectators, including ...noble ladies on the podium [who] often lost their heads. When one handsome young Myrmillo, only a few weeks before a simple farmboy living on the slopes of Apennine, paraded before the podium with his bloody sword upraised a ...


6

The Angus Maddison Project provides the following GDP per capita (in 1990 GK international dollars) estimates for regions within the Roman Empire in the year 1 CE: Population-weighted average is probably somewhere around 700*. There were around 45.5 million people in the Roman Empire in the year 14 CE. So 45,500,000 * $700 = $31,850,000,000. * Note ...


6

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


6

It is Vespasian. In the Life of Vespasian from Chapter 18 of Book 8 of The Twelve Cesars by Suetonius, it says: Some one offering to convey some immense columns into the Capitol at a small expense by a mechanical contrivance, he rewarded him very handsomely for his invention, but would not accept his service, saying, "Suffer me to find maintenance ...


5

The shift was indeed gradual and it was in the interests of the regime, when it was still taking root, to dissimulate that the Republic was intact and the emperor was just the first among equals. Augustus was a past master at this sort of game; Tiberius tried to play it too but with ill results. Later emperors felt less need to do so. In fact, I am in ...


5

As @Mark points out, the Empire was too large to be efficiently managed from a single central point in the 4th century: at that time, the complete area consisted of provinciae, full of Roman citizens who had to be protected (no client state to serve as buffer), and the external borders were under high demographic pressure ("barbarians" on the other side of ...


5

Here's a partial answer covering just Alexandria (though also see comment about Carthage below). The most significant event in the history of the Hellenistic Jewish community of Alexandria was not the end of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135CE, but the suppression of the Rebellion of the Exile (Kitos War) in 117CE. Theodor Mommsen estimates that in the first ...


4

This is just speculation as i cannot back it up with any hard data but there might be a few causes: Dacia went an intensive colonization process after it's conquest by Traian causing a big chunk of population to be foreigners. This coupled with the lack of written tradition in the native dacians and the need for a now mixed population to effectively live ...


4

The division of Rome by the second triumvirate was into more than the three parts assigned to Octavian, Antony and Lepidus. For example, all of Italy was assigned to the Senate as you can see in the following map: There was no specific results of this tending towards the "fall" of the empire. In fact, the empire grew for another 200 years after this. The ...


4

The terms of the Augustan Settlement of 27 BC, where Augustus and the Senate defined respective powers, set a delay of five years from Consulship to receiving a Senatorial Province, so at least half of this gap was by law. The Senatorial provinces were, as a rule, staid and peaceful provinces as well, and had little or no military forces. The point ...


4

The situation of Rome at that time was entirely different than what you imagine. The first key thing to understand is that the western empire and eastern empire were split on political, ethnic and religious lines. The main power in the world (until 408) was Theodosius, the emperor in Constantinople. Constantinople was founded by the first Christian emperor, ...


4

The town of Novigrad may be the most northern town of Greek origin. Reputedly it was originally founded by the Greeks as Neapolis (new city).


4

Fertility Rates Were High In General Our data on classical fertility rates are somewhat fragmentary. We know, however, that it must have been fairly high. Populations with high mortality rates demand a high fertility rate in order to maintain its numbers. For instance, a mean life expectancy at birth of 25 years compels – on average – every woman ...


3

Wikipedia has separate articles on the different ranks, but they are not (as of this writing) systematically categorized. For example: Illustris or Gloriosissimus. The Illustris article refers to Jones, A.H.M., The Later Roman Empire 284-602, A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey (Oxford: Blackwell, 1964, repr. Johns Hopkins UP, 1986) which is a ...


3

The main reason was to reduce the ability of a single man to raise an army and wield it against the Tetrarchs. An army commander had troops (and possibly a lot of them) but did not have the infrastructure to keep them fed and supplied if he revolted. Similarly, a disaffected governor had no troops to raise a revolt. So an internal revolt had to rely on ...


3

No. Plutarch would not be considered a historian from the modern standard of academic or professional history. Plutarch lacked the equivalent of a modern University's research degree in history. Plutarch did not work in a context of post 19th century historiography. In particular Plutarch's writing of "history" for moral instruction is greatly frowned ...



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