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11

Dominus, plural Domini, in ancient Rome, “master,” or “owner,” particularly of slaves. The name later became the official title for the emperor, beginning with Diocletian, who reigned from ad 284 to 305. The mutual relation of Slave and Master among the Romans was expressed by the terms Servus and Dominus; and the power and interest which the dominus had ...


10

According to Siege Warfare and Military Organization in the Successor States (400-800 AD) (pages 365-6), the formidable poliorcetic abilities of the Huns under Attila came not only from the Romans, but also from a prior exposure in the Near, Middle and Far East to other civilizations skilled in siege warfare: They may therefore have been familiar with ...


10

It was more. In 2006 Walter Schiedel wrote an interesting working paper on Roman incomes ("New ways of studying incomes in the Roman economy") which you can find on the web. However, Schiedel's paper just scratches the surface. When Cicero, a very frugal and honest man, ruled as governor of Cilicia, a relatively poor province, he made 2.1 million sesterces, ...


9

The Romans would have a tactic of three lines, where first the the second and then the third line would press themselves between the first line when needed to let the first line get a breather and reform. When the first line as a whole had done its best and become weakened and exhausted by losses, it gave way to the relief of fresh men from the second ...


9

What animals: Oxen The scheme: Paddle-Wheel Used for warfare: Unlikely ~ (No evidence exists) The first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the 4th–5th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis (chapter XVII) you described, where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle-wheel warship: "Animal power, directed ...


9

They did know. Roman knowledge of China is attested in the Geographia, work of the famous Claudius Ptolemy. Which is not to say, however, that the Romans knew much at all about the Han Empire (or vice versa, for that matter). For instance, Ptolemy's map of the Far East coastline is rather distorted: In Chinese records, the Han Emperor first received ...


7

None of the standard fighting styles would have been armed with an axe (at least none of them that I can find reference to). However... This mosaic at Galleria Borghese in Rome is believed to have dated from between 320AD and 330AD clearly shows a gladiator armed with an axe on the far right: These mosaics memorialize great gladiatorial matches (the ...


7

It is known that coins were minted in the first years, if not the first, of the new Emperor's reign. The populace often learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Some of the emperors who ruled only for a short time made sure that a coin bore their image; Quietus, for example, ruled only part of the Roman Empire from ...


7

Romans never believed the emperor to be god. This is a popular misconception. The emperors could be declared divine (divinus) by the senate (god-like), which is not the same as being a god (divus). At the same time there was a cult of the emperor's genius: the Romans believed that each person had a supernatural protector (genius), similar to Christian ...


7

First, Jesus did not live in Judea, but in the more rural and distant province of Galilee. The major population center was Sepphoris, Herod Antipas' seat of power. Historians generally agree that Jesus would have plied his trade in that city: Sepphoris... was moneyed. It was the center of trade for the area. And if Jesus were growing up in Nazareth, ...


7

The drifting apart of the East and West empires did contribute to the decline of the West, but it isn't true that the East did not try and help the West during this time. 1) The courts of the two young emperors Arcadius and Honorius did become more 'insular' in their thinking than in the good old days when Constantine would march all over the map. One ...


6

There is a fine list here: http://historum.com/ancient-history/19034-national-ethnic-origins-roman-emperors.html During the mid and late periods of the empire most emperors were born outside of Italy most famously of Illyrian origin. The Byzantine empire(East roman empire) was more Greek than Latin so it is understandable that its emperors were not from ...


6

There is a text of Cicero in which he defends a friend of his, named Milo. Milo was on trial for the murder of P. Clodius Pulcher, but manumitted (freed) all his slaves in advance. Roman slaves where required to be tortured for evidence against their master, hence freeing them will make this impossible. (Cicero, Speech in Defense of Milo 57, 58). I don't ...


5

Wikipedia has the cursory answer The transfer was made partly for defensive purposes: Ravenna was surrounded by swamps and marshes, and was perceived to be easily defensible (although in fact the city fell to opposing forces numerous times in its history); it is also likely that the move to Ravenna was due to the city's port and good sea-borne ...


5

When the pressure on the frontiers became heavy, the Emperor had to spend increasing time away from Rome on the frontiers. Even in the heady days of Marcus Aurelius and Trajan the emperor had to be on the front line for increasing periods. Other Emperors made long tours to see and administer the provinces (Hadrian, Caracalla). Things got even worse when ...


4

We don't know the secular historical crime that Yeshua ben Yosef was executed for. The reason we don't know this is that there are no such records from Roman times. All we have are texts written a lot later, by people who was not there and never met this Yeshua, and was only told about it. In fact, most texts that we have are written by people, who got all ...


4

Rather than speculate from ignorance, I looked up one interesting chapter title on the relevant period from Gibbons: History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, to wit: Chapter XXXI: Invasion Of Italy, Occupation Of Territories By Barbarians.—Part I., and found this [my emphasis]: The incapacity of a weak and distracted government may often ...


4

The legions just became the armies of local warlords, they had been made up of local forces more loyal to their local leaders rather than Rome for a long time (centuries). So in a sense they stopped to exist, in another sense they continued to exist, just under theoretically different high command. But remember that the empire had for centuries been highly ...


4

I'll only provide some data about the mined gold: 9 t p.a. "Production in Asturia, Callaecia, and Lusitania (all Iberian Peninsula) alone." (Pliny: Naturalis Historia, 33.21.78, in: Wilson 2002, p. 27) 190t during whole "Roman Time" in Northwest Spain (I didn't see a specific time range in the paper) ...


3

Words like kurios and dominus are literary words that would be not normally be used in everyday speech by a slave. Plautus most famous character, the slave Epidicus, addresses his master as "ere", which is Greek slang and means "boss". Another of Plautus' slaves, Pseudolus, uses exactly the same word to address his master. If you read "Latin Forms of ...


3

First imagine a world without any coinage, where all purchases and sales must be achieved through barter. Further imagine that there are well accepted equivalencies, between all goods so that an average ox is understood to be worth 10 average sheep, 8 average goats, etc. Three of those goods will of course be copper, silver and gold, so that there will be ...


3

To answer only part of the question: The wealth of first century carpenters is impossible to compare to highly paid workers in late capitalism. Wealth has a fundamentally different meaning in our society to that of Antiquity; and, as such, a valid comparison is impossible. It is however possible to explain wealth and poverty from the first century in ways ...


3

Artillery comprises large, heavy engines throwing large, heavy missiles. Size is important in an artillery crew because a larger man can perform the same tasks of loading and aiming the engine faster, and longer without fatigue, than a smaller man. These are plain physical attributes of the technology being discussed. Artillery propels missiles on a ...


3

Since Tacitus probably made it up, like most speeches put in the mouths of historical figures by ancient historians, the answer would be "Latin".


3

Declaring a holy war does not magically create additional resources for war. That presupposes the nation had a large reservoir of untapped strength that could be utilised by religious zeal. Christendom had lords and trained armies of professional warriors (knights). The Caliphate united tribes of Arabs and were fortunate enough to find two exhausted empires ...


3

The Han general Ban Chao (AD 32-102) reconquered the states in the Western Regions (the modern day Tarim Basin in Xinjiang) after pushing the Xiongnu out of the region. This included the kingdoms of Kashgar, Loulan, and Khotan, which were returned to Chinese control. He also sent his emissary Gan Ying even further in order to reach Rome (Daqin). Gan Ying ...


2

Artillery was a big man's trade as much 2,000 years ago as it is now, or was in Napoleon's age. Whether it is lugging the shells around today, or winding the windlass then, strength is vital for a better rate of fire, and strength derives from physical size. Further, in addition to a team of gorillas to man the piece, a gun layer (or two, as a spare) is ...


2

In the book The Great Fire of Rome: The Fall of the Emperor Nero and His City.' (Da Capo, Cambridge, Mass, 7 September 2010). author Stephen Dando Collins puts forward the theory that the people persecuted by Nero were not Christians, but an Egyptian sect (the priests of Isis). Part of the reasoning is that Christians were few at the time and relatively ...


2

Let's look at inflation first. "when the coins are too much altered, the result is inflation." When coins are altered, they are almost always debased - other metals are mixed with silver to allow the government to mint more coins with the same amount of specie. So if I have enough silver to produce 1000 coins, and I mix in 50% tin, I can now ...


2

By 476 CE there were no Western legions to speak of. When Theodosius I had died in 395 both parts of the Empire were still going strong and had big armies. However, the first decade of the 5th century set in train events which led to a vicious circle for the West: barbarian incursions -> inept handling of them -> devastation of the Empire's tax base ...



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