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71

One key lies in their treatment of illegitimacy, or bastardy. In Roman society, as is typical of the West in general, illegitimate children had no formal link to their fathers. This was true from the earliest times, and lasted well into the Imperial period before a softening of the laws occurred in the second and third centuries.1 In the Roman setting, ...


19

The question is illogical because there was no such thing as a viking in the days of the undivided Roman Empire or of the Western Roman Empire. A viking is defined as a Scandinavian pirate or sea raider during the period of about 795 to 1100 AD at the widest. It is always incorrect to capitalize viking and use it as an ethnic word instead of an ...


18

The scholarly consensus is almost unanimous on this point: Luke is simply wrong. There are a number of reasons why the account provided by Luke cannot be taken seriously; these reasons include contradictions between Luke and the external historical evidence, Luke's obvious misunderstanding of how censuses were conducted, Luke's misunderstanding of ...


13

Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


12

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


10

Economy of the period is analysed in the book by Bryan Ward-Perkins, Fall of Rome and the end of civilization (Oxford UP, 2006).The author gives abundant evidence that the fall of the empire was accompanied by a collapse of economy, material production and infrastructure in general. The evidence is based on contemporary accounts and archeological data. ...


9

First of all, I would not trust Wikipedia numbers about Roman Empire. Roman empire existed for 4 centuries, and the things did not stay unchanged. Second, we have no reliable statistics for most periods. Even the population of the Empire in various periods is not clear, and estimates widely vary. Third, you cannot compare ancient economy with modern economy, ...


7

The notion of "free speech", as we understand it today did not exist in the Roman empire. The authors you cite probably mean " crimen laesae majestatis", which English Wikipedia translates as "lese majeste". This was a law which was probably introduced under Augustus, and then revoked and re-introduced under various princepces. The first person who revoked ...


7

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


7

The Western Empire did not use the army because they did not have an army to speak of. In 406, the Vandals passed over the frozen Rhine and rampaged through Gaul. Imperial forces in Britain joined a usurper and there was a three way combat under way. No help there. The Imperial Generalissmo, Stilicho, was working on and off with Alaric to regain the ...


7

Definitely, Crimea (Chersonesos) or some place in its surrounding. Crimea's south coast was part of Roman Empire in 47 BC - 330 AD, and also a part of the Byzantine Empire later.


7

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


7

On my opinion, this statement "When we look to history we see that ignoring science has led to the crumbling of societies" is not confirmed by history. Societies, or civilizations come and go and there is no evidence that this is somehow related to the development of science. Science, in its present form, was mostly created by the Hellenistic Greeks, and ...


6

The Angus Maddison Project provides the following GDP per capita (in 1990 GK international dollars) estimates for regions within the Roman Empire in the year 1 CE: Population-weighted average is probably somewhere around 700*. There were around 45.5 million people in the Roman Empire in the year 14 CE. So 45,500,000 * $700 = $31,850,000,000. * Note ...


6

It is Vespasian. In the Life of Vespasian from Chapter 18 of Book 8 of The Twelve Cesars by Suetonius, it says: Some one offering to convey some immense columns into the Capitol at a small expense by a mechanical contrivance, he rewarded him very handsomely for his invention, but would not accept his service, saying, "Suffer me to find maintenance ...


6

Vegetius wrote after the professionalization of the Roman armies, the Marian reforms. The original Hastati, Principes and Triarii referred to degrees of wealth(and thus equipment) and experience of the troops in the unit. After the reforms these distinctions became meaningless as the troops where state-equipped. At the time when Vegetius wrote the roman ...


6

The Romans were good surveyors. Vitruvius described surveying tools and methods in a book that was used in the Middle Ages. By laying out stakes at fixed distances and using a plumb with simple sighting rods, it is very easy to lay out squares, lines, triangles, etc., and to measure the distances between different points. The Romans divided huge tracts of ...


5

I presume you're not talking about the Byzantine half of the Roman Empire here. Those ties are well known. So, taking the subject line of your question, Romans of the western half of the Roman Empire meeting Vikings would be impossible because Rome fell before the label Viking was generally applied to Scandinavians. Taking the text of your question, the ...


5

There were three common methods. The first and most common was to use a diploma which is two boards sandwiched together with leather thongs. Papyrus is very fragile, so if you had something valuable written down you needed a binder like this to protect it. Also, writing can be done right on the boards themselves, not even using paper. Many diplomas had wax ...


5

I recall that one of the positions within the legion was responsible for pay. A quick websearch turned up nothing. A slightly more exhaustive search turned up two different answers Signifer: Each Centuria had a Signifer (59). He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with ...


5

Jesus was not a Roman citizen. He was not one of the provinciales because he was not born in Roman province (Iudaea). "The Closing of the Western Mind" by Charles Freeman, chapter 8, says he was born and lived almost entire life in Galilee, which was part of a "puppet state" ruled by a king (e.g., Herod Antipas). Jesus came to Iudaea between 29-33 CE, most ...


4

This is just speculation as i cannot back it up with any hard data but there might be a few causes: Dacia went an intensive colonization process after it's conquest by Traian causing a big chunk of population to be foreigners. This coupled with the lack of written tradition in the native dacians and the need for a now mixed population to effectively live ...


4

The town of Novigrad may be the most northern town of Greek origin. Reputedly it was originally founded by the Greeks as Neapolis (new city).


4

The situation of Rome at that time was entirely different than what you imagine. The first key thing to understand is that the western empire and eastern empire were split on political, ethnic and religious lines. The main power in the world (until 408) was Theodosius, the emperor in Constantinople. Constantinople was founded by the first Christian emperor, ...


4

Well, the Menorah was seen later (according to one testimony): Most likely, the menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455 CE, and taken to their capital, Carthage. The Byzantine army under General Belisarius might have removed it in 533 and brought it to Constantinople. According to Procopius, it was carried through the ...


4

I'd say Half-Uncial (3rd Century AD) and Carolingian (9th Century AD) scripts; as it says in the Wikipedia text for the latter, Clear capital letters and spaces between words – norms we take for granted – became standard in Carolingian minuscule [...] So it was the first time both capitals and minuscules were used in a standard way (instead of ...


4

The Romans had two institutions that the Eastern rulers lacked: monogamy, and primogeniture. Monogamy meant that even wealthy Romans would have only one wife. One might have plenty of mistresses on the side, but these weren't "wives. Which led to the next thing, primogeniture. That is, inheritance of the family line by the one and only oldest son, begotten ...


4

The quote seems to be resting its entire thesis on a neglect of science being the cause of the collapse of the Roman Empire. If they had other good examples of this thesis in action, they probably should have used one of those instead. There are hundreds of different theories for the cause of the fall of the Roman Empire floating around. Its one of the ...


3

This Map of Greek Colonies in the Adriatic shows that the most northerly posts were Pharos and Issos halfway up the coast. These were secondary settlements from Syracuse and Ionian cities, though. If you eliminate those you are down in Albania.


3

There is no consensus among historians as to what exact reasons lead to the downfall of the Roman Empire. There are varying different theories on this matter, but at least Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, gives a well-researched and more importantly, well-referenced account. According to him, barbarians from the ...



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