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43

I take your question as meaning: when did Romans realize that they were living in a monarchy ? (As opposed to the aristocratic regime previously known as "republic".) We must first realize that there cannot be a single point in time, because the Roman people did not operate under a uniform and shared mind. Throughout the whole antiquity, three quarters of ...


12

Disclaimer: As has been repeatedly pointed out, this is a gradual shift that cannot really be pinpointed. Moreover, in my opinion, it hugely depends on how one interpret any of the several parts in this question. Duringthe Principate period (27 B.C. – A.D. 284), emperors carefully maintained the façades of Republican government. The senate continued ...


11

Dominus, plural Domini, in ancient Rome, “master,” or “owner,” particularly of slaves. The name later became the official title for the emperor, beginning with Diocletian, who reigned from ad 284 to 305. The mutual relation of Slave and Master among the Romans was expressed by the terms Servus and Dominus; and the power and interest which the dominus had ...


11

I will answer for the first question the Gladiatorial games were free for everyone to watch? Not really , quoting from wikipedia ( I dont know how to re-write it in my own words so Ill just paste it ) Towards the end of the Republic, Cicero (Murena, 72–3) still describes gladiator shows as ticketed — their political usefulness was served by ...


10

It was more. In 2006 Walter Schiedel wrote an interesting working paper on Roman incomes ("New ways of studying incomes in the Roman economy") which you can find on the web. However, Schiedel's paper just scratches the surface. When Cicero, a very frugal and honest man, ruled as governor of Cilicia, a relatively poor province, he made 2.1 million sesterces, ...


10

According to Siege Warfare and Military Organization in the Successor States (400-800 AD) (pages 365-6), the formidable poliorcetic abilities of the Huns under Attila came not only from the Romans, but also from a prior exposure in the Near, Middle and Far East to other civilizations skilled in siege warfare: They may therefore have been familiar with ...


9

What animals: Oxen The scheme: Paddle-Wheel Used for warfare: Unlikely ~ (No evidence exists) The first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the 4th–5th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis (chapter XVII) you described, where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle-wheel warship: "Animal power, directed ...


9

They did know. Roman knowledge of China is attested in the Geographia, work of the famous Claudius Ptolemy. Which is not to say, however, that the Romans knew much at all about the Han Empire (or vice versa, for that matter). For instance, Ptolemy's map of the Far East coastline is rather distorted: In Chinese records, the Han Emperor first received ...


9

Romans weren't very concerned about unique names for just about anyone. In the Late Republic, Fathers, sons, grandsons had about three between them per family. All girls were just named after the family with a feminine ending. i.e. Julia --> "Julian Girl". In the case of Vespasian's family, the second son had the name Domitianus added to the standard ...


8

None of the standard fighting styles would have been armed with an axe (at least none of them that I can find reference to). However... This mosaic at Galleria Borghese in Rome is believed to have dated from between 320AD and 330AD clearly shows a gladiator armed with an axe on the far right: These mosaics memorialize great gladiatorial matches (the ...


8

Ballistae and other ancient pieces of "artillery" are siege engines. Their primary purpose is to provide fire support within the context of laying siege to a town or fortress; the heavy bolts could lay waste to wooden fortifications (especially the kind of light mobile protection against archers). Siege weapons are heavy, very slow to move, and have a low ...


7

It is known that coins were minted in the first years, if not the first, of the new Emperor's reign. The populace often learned of a new Roman Emperor when coins appeared with the new Emperor's portrait. Some of the emperors who ruled only for a short time made sure that a coin bore their image; Quietus, for example, ruled only part of the Roman Empire from ...


7

The drifting apart of the East and West empires did contribute to the decline of the West, but it isn't true that the East did not try and help the West during this time. 1) The courts of the two young emperors Arcadius and Honorius did become more 'insular' in their thinking than in the good old days when Constantine would march all over the map. One ...


6

Tiberius and Nero are also known by their respective praenomen. So it is not without parallel.


5

Rather than speculate from ignorance, I looked up one interesting chapter title on the relevant period from Gibbons: History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, to wit: Chapter XXXI: Invasion Of Italy, Occupation Of Territories By Barbarians.—Part I., and found this [my emphasis]: The incapacity of a weak and distracted government may often ...


5

Wikipedia has the cursory answer The transfer was made partly for defensive purposes: Ravenna was surrounded by swamps and marshes, and was perceived to be easily defensible (although in fact the city fell to opposing forces numerous times in its history); it is also likely that the move to Ravenna was due to the city's port and good sea-borne ...


5

When the pressure on the frontiers became heavy, the Emperor had to spend increasing time away from Rome on the frontiers. Even in the heady days of Marcus Aurelius and Trajan the emperor had to be on the front line for increasing periods. Other Emperors made long tours to see and administer the provinces (Hadrian, Caracalla). Things got even worse when ...


5

I'll only provide some data about the mined gold: 9 t p.a. "Production in Asturia, Callaecia, and Lusitania (all Iberian Peninsula) alone." (Pliny: Naturalis Historia, 33.21.78, in: Wilson 2002, p. 27) 190t during whole "Roman Time" in Northwest Spain (I didn't see a specific time range in the paper) ...


5

As @Mark points out, the Empire was too large to be efficiently managed from a single central point in the 4th century: at that time, the complete area consisted of provinciae, full of Roman citizens who had to be protected (no client state to serve as buffer), and the external borders were under high demographic pressure ("barbarians" on the other side of ...


5

The book "Those About to Die" by Daniel Mannix (Panther 1960) relates that women were among the spectators, including ...noble ladies on the podium [who] often lost their heads. When one handsome young Myrmillo, only a few weeks before a simple farmboy living on the slopes of Apennine, paraded before the podium with his bloody sword upraised a ...


5

The shift was indeed gradual and it was in the interests of the regime, when it was still taking root, to dissimulate that the Republic was intact and the emperor was just the first among equals. Augustus was a past master at this sort of game; Tiberius tried to play it too but with ill results. Later emperors felt less need to do so. In fact, I am in ...


5

It is a bronze lasanum, a very expensive piece of equipment. The way it works is you put charcoal and some oil/wood in it and light it which makes a hot fire (as you can see flames are coming out of it). You then spit meat and put it in the lasanum to roast the meat. This particular lasanum seems to have a arch allowing it to be hung and the man is hanging ...


4

The legions just became the armies of local warlords, they had been made up of local forces more loyal to their local leaders rather than Rome for a long time (centuries). So in a sense they stopped to exist, in another sense they continued to exist, just under theoretically different high command. But remember that the empire had for centuries been highly ...


4

I don't think Caesar was a hippie, but like a lot of young folk in history, did do things in dress and deportment to annoy the older generations. A Companion to Julius Caesar (Google Books Link) summarizes a lot of the various controversies over Caesar and his tunic. The ultimate sources are Suetonius, Lives of the 12 Caesars and several cracks by Cicero ...


3

Words like kurios and dominus are literary words that would be not normally be used in everyday speech by a slave. Plautus most famous character, the slave Epidicus, addresses his master as "ere", which is Greek slang and means "boss". Another of Plautus' slaves, Pseudolus, uses exactly the same word to address his master. If you read "Latin Forms of ...


3

First imagine a world without any coinage, where all purchases and sales must be achieved through barter. Further imagine that there are well accepted equivalencies, between all goods so that an average ox is understood to be worth 10 average sheep, 8 average goats, etc. Three of those goods will of course be copper, silver and gold, so that there will be ...


3

Since Tacitus probably made it up, like most speeches put in the mouths of historical figures by ancient historians, the answer would be "Latin".


3

Declaring a holy war does not magically create additional resources for war. That presupposes the nation had a large reservoir of untapped strength that could be utilised by religious zeal. Christendom had lords and trained armies of professional warriors (knights). The Caliphate united tribes of Arabs and were fortunate enough to find two exhausted empires ...


3

The Han general Ban Chao (AD 32-102) reconquered the states in the Western Regions (the modern day Tarim Basin in Xinjiang) after pushing the Xiongnu out of the region. This included the kingdoms of Kashgar, Loulan, and Khotan, which were returned to Chinese control. He also sent his emissary Gan Ying even further in order to reach Rome (Daqin). Gan Ying ...


3

The first emperor to take the monarchical title was Heraclius. After defeating the Persian Empire in 627 he took the title "King of Kings" which prevuously belonged to Persian king Khosrau II. As such, starting from 629 he ordered to style him Basileos Basileion "King of kings" or simply "Basileos" "king". This continued with all consecutive emperors. ...



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