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By 476 CE there were no Western legions to speak of. When Theodosius I had died in 395 both parts of the Empire were still going strong and had big armies. However, the first decade of the 5th century set in train events which led to a vicious circle for the West: barbarian incursions -> inept handling of them -> devastation of the Empire's tax base ...


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Rather than speculate from ignorance, I looked up one interesting chapter title on the relevant period from Gibbons: History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, to wit: Chapter XXXI: Invasion Of Italy, Occupation Of Territories By Barbarians.—Part I., and found this [my emphasis]: The incapacity of a weak and distracted government may often ...


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The legions just became the armies of local warlords, they had been made up of local forces more loyal to their local leaders rather than Rome for a long time (centuries). So in a sense they stopped to exist, in another sense they continued to exist, just under theoretically different high command. But remember that the empire had for centuries been highly ...


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In the book The Great Fire of Rome: The Fall of the Emperor Nero and His City.' (Da Capo, Cambridge, Mass, 7 September 2010). author Stephen Dando Collins puts forward the theory that the people persecuted by Nero were not Christians, but an Egyptian sect (the priests of Isis). Part of the reasoning is that Christians were few at the time and relatively ...


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The Catholic Church was a separate judicial person during the Middle Ages due to the existence of ecclesiastical courts. But the pope is the head of the Collegium Pontificum (College of Pontiffs), which is different than a collegium. The Collegium Pontificum in the Roman Empire was the group of high pagan priests headed by the caesar. Byzantine emperor, ...


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This has been a particularly vexing question. First, it is well established that Constantine "legalized" Christianity in 313 AD. In doing so, it appears that Constantine granted specific rights to Christians regarding property and constructing churches. It's possible these specific rights were conferred by the Senate in the form of recognizing the Church as ...


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None of the standard fighting styles would have been armed with an axe (at least none of them that I can find reference to). However... This mosaic at Galleria Borghese in Rome is believed to have dated from between 320AD and 330AD clearly shows a gladiator armed with an axe on the far right: These mosaics memorialize great gladiatorial matches (the ...


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Words like kurios and dominus are literary words that would be not normally be used in everyday speech by a slave. Plautus most famous character, the slave Epidicus, addresses his master as "ere", which is Greek slang and means "boss". Another of Plautus' slaves, Pseudolus, uses exactly the same word to address his master. If you read "Latin Forms of ...


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First imagine a world without any coinage, where all purchases and sales must be achieved through barter. Further imagine that there are well accepted equivalencies, between all goods so that an average ox is understood to be worth 10 average sheep, 8 average goats, etc. Three of those goods will of course be copper, silver and gold, so that there will be ...


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Let's look at inflation first. "when the coins are too much altered, the result is inflation." When coins are altered, they are almost always debased - other metals are mixed with silver to allow the government to mint more coins with the same amount of specie. So if I have enough silver to produce 1000 coins, and I mix in 50% tin, I can now ...


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A greek-speaking slave (δούλος, doulos) I think would call his master κύριος (translit: kurios; lord, master, sir; vocative form: κύριε). Roman was not the only language spoken in the Empire, especially amongst lower classes. Alexander's "Koine" (Common) Greek might have been more common, certainly in the early empire. The early church fathers wrote in ...


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Dominus, plural Domini, in ancient Rome, “master,” or “owner,” particularly of slaves. The name later became the official title for the emperor, beginning with Diocletian, who reigned from ad 284 to 305. The mutual relation of Slave and Master among the Romans was expressed by the terms Servus and Dominus; and the power and interest which the dominus had ...



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