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There is always hope of recovering lost works. Recently a new fragment of Aristotle was recovered in Oxyrhynncus. Lost works are sometimes found in newly discovered tombs and trash middens. Also, they are sometimes discovered as palimpsests. In other cases, important works are discovered hidden away unnoticed in libraries. A typical example of this was the ...


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The earlier laws on murder are unclear. Although it is known that some certain types of murder were defined in the original twelve tables, it is not certain what they were. The Lex Cornelia de Sicariis Veneficis of Sulla in 82 BC is the first certain Roman law of murder which provides that anyone who kills dolus malus (i.e., as part of an evil design) shall ...


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It is Vespasian. In the Life of Vespasian from Chapter 18 of Book 8 of The Twelve Cesars by Suetonius, it says: Some one offering to convey some immense columns into the Capitol at a small expense by a mechanical contrivance, he rewarded him very handsomely for his invention, but would not accept his service, saying, "Suffer me to find maintenance ...


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Well, the Menorah was seen later (according to one testimony): Most likely, the menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455 CE, and taken to their capital, Carthage. The Byzantine army under General Belisarius might have removed it in 533 and brought it to Constantinople. According to Procopius, it was carried through the ...


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Ireland isn't "only a few miles away". The shortest sea crossings from Wales are Fishguard–Rosslare and Holyhead–Dublin, which are both 60 miles (100km). Scotland is closer: Portpatrick–Bangor is about 20 miles (35km). South-west England is about twice as far from Ireland as Wales is. The Romans never had sustained control of Scotland ...


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To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


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Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


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The scholarly consensus is almost unanimous on this point: Luke is simply wrong. There are a number of reasons why the account provided by Luke cannot be taken seriously; these reasons include contradictions between Luke and the external historical evidence, Luke's obvious misunderstanding of how censuses were conducted, Luke's misunderstanding of ...


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So - Danube-Bulagian Huns are Yuezhi - because of the artificial cranial deformation, Volga Bulgars originate from Usuns, European Avars - from little Yuezhi. About the language - it is difficult, usually is assumed to be Turkic, but Pritsak (the leading specialist, Harvard), is using the term Hunno-Bulgarian: ...


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European Huns were a conglomeration of Yuezhi and Usun tribes, probably mixed with Iranian Saka tribes. They cannot be Xiongnu because they were present at Europe borders even before 3 century AD. Read Zuev, he has very good ideas: " Absence of information about historical migration of Sünnu-Huns to the west before the end of the 4th century AD, and ...


-1

Been a while since I played it, but I don't think it allows you to address individual centuries. If it did, you'd have over a hundred of them to control, which would be unrealistic and probably boring to boot. Seems to me you're applying the tactic at the wrong scale. @ Semaphore I suspect he doesn't mean a single line of men, but units. @ Doug B I think ...


1

OP states that "etymology above suggests that only certain Roman citizens were bound to moenus." - I don't follow that line of reasoning. I think there is insufficient evidence here to reach a strong conclusion about anything. Having said that, here is the way I would read these definitions: I concur that only certain citizens were bound to moenus. I ...


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I don't have my references handy but my recollection is: The three-line, checkerboard formation (princeps, hastati, triarii) was used only in the Republican period, having been developed by Camillus and largely abandoned by the time of Marius. So depending on the time period you are gaming use of the three lines and checkerboard may or may not be ...


3

The frontline was still quite long: a maniple typically consisted of 120 soldiers arrayed in 3 ranks of 40 men when engaged in battle. each line had about 10 maniples and neighbouring maniples had a space of a maniple between them. That makes the frontline 19×40 = 760 men wide. Lets say that each man had a "personal space" of 1,5 meter (which is not ...


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The god in question is Dionysus (or Bacchus, if you're from Rome), god of the grape harvest and wine, among other things. The geographical origins of Dionysus are Greek. From the Mycenaean Linear B tablets, we know that a "DI-WO-NI-SO-JO" was known (at least) in Pylos before 1200 B.C. (source) Homer's relative neglect of Dionysus, coupled with the ...


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Fertility Rates Were High In General Our data on classical fertility rates are somewhat fragmentary. We know, however, that it must have been fairly high. Populations with high mortality rates demand a high fertility rate in order to maintain its numbers. For instance, a mean life expectancy at birth of 25 years compels – on average – every woman ...



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