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The terms of the Augustan Settlement of 27 BC, where Augustus and the Senate defined respective powers, set a delay of five years from Consulship to receiving a Senatorial Province, so at least half of this gap was by law. The Senatorial provinces were, as a rule, staid and peaceful provinces as well, and had little or no military forces. The point ...


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The slavery hypothesis is weak - all parts of Rome used slaves heavily. When Rome was a unified entity, it could use all its resources on a threatened frontier to restore the situation, wherever the problem was. This is one of the reasons that the recovery from the third century crisis was so rapid - once the issue with defecting armies and usurpers was ...


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The main reason was to reduce the ability of a single man to raise an army and wield it against the Tetrarchs. An army commander had troops (and possibly a lot of them) but did not have the infrastructure to keep them fed and supplied if he revolted. Similarly, a disaffected governor had no troops to raise a revolt. So an internal revolt had to rely on ...


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The simple answer is that they used a form of surveying tool called a groma. This basically consisted of two pieces of wood nailed together to form a square cross with right angles in all corners. Each piece of wood had lead weights attached to the end, and they determined they had a straight line when the lead weight from one piece of wood lined up with the ...


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The Seven Hills of Rome is something of a misnomer, as three of them (Quirinal, Esquiline, and Viminal) are all protruding parts of one landmass. As in the Legendary Seven Kings of Rome, the attraction to seven is probably just that seven is a lucky number. Once you make the "Seven Hills" famous, it is pretty easy to pick out seven lumps in your city to ...



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