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44

I take your question as meaning: when did Romans realize that they were living in a monarchy ? (As opposed to the aristocratic regime previously known as "republic".) We must first realize that there cannot be a single point in time, because the Roman people did not operate under a uniform and shared mind. Throughout the whole antiquity, three quarters of ...


16

@YannisRizos answered the question. It is not known what he said, but the result was that the Roman masses became very angry with Caesar's murderers, burnt down their houses and made them flee from he city. Livius Appian's transcript of Mark Anthony's funeral oration, suggests that Shakespeare wrote for the stage, not for historical accuracy (although ...


12

Disclaimer: As has been repeatedly pointed out, this is a gradual shift that cannot really be pinpointed. Moreover, in my opinion, it hugely depends on how one interpret any of the several parts in this question. Duringthe Principate period (27 B.C. – A.D. 284), emperors carefully maintained the façades of Republican government. The senate continued ...


5

The shift was indeed gradual and it was in the interests of the regime, when it was still taking root, to dissimulate that the Republic was intact and the emperor was just the first among equals. Augustus was a past master at this sort of game; Tiberius tried to play it too but with ill results. Later emperors felt less need to do so. In fact, I am in ...


4

I don't think Caesar was a hippie, but like a lot of young folk in history, did do things in dress and deportment to annoy the older generations. A Companion to Julius Caesar (Google Books Link) summarizes a lot of the various controversies over Caesar and his tunic. The ultimate sources are Suetonius, Lives of the 12 Caesars and several cracks by Cicero ...


4

You are attempting to distinguish between the Latin term for the individual who governed a province in place of the Republic's Consuls, Proconsul, and the modern English functional term for such an individual, Governor. Such a distinction is meaningless; The terms have an identical meaning when referring to individuals who exercised consular power in a ...


3

The first emperor to take the monarchical title was Heraclius. After defeating the Persian Empire in 627 he took the title "King of Kings" which prevuously belonged to Persian king Khosrau II. As such, starting from 629 he ordered to style him Basileos Basileion "King of kings" or simply "Basileos" "king". This continued with all consecutive emperors. ...


3

According to the Cursus Honorum, Tiberius was not eligible to be Consul until the age of 42. As he was killed at the age of only 30 (163/2 BC to 133 BC) he was a long cry from being eligible for the Consulship, even given the extreme bending of the rules that was becoming commonplace about this time. The Cursus Honorum was a succession of offices to be held ...


3

The Western Empire fell in 410. However, beginning in the fourth century, more and more of the barbarian tribes were converting to Christianity, so a "Holy War" against them would not make sense. The Visigoths, Othrogoths, and Vandals converted to Arian Christianity. These tribes flourished and spread during the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or ...


3

Declaring a holy war does not magically create additional resources for war. That presupposes the nation had a large reservoir of untapped strength that could be utilised by religious zeal. Christendom had lords and trained armies of professional warriors (knights). The Caliphate united tribes of Arabs and were fortunate enough to find two exhausted empires ...


3

As has been noted, the eagle became the national bird because it was chosen to be on the Great Seal, designed by Charles Thomson. The idea did not emerge out of thin air, however; the eagle is a very popular emblem with a very long history in heraldry. Two of the three committees designing the seal included the eagle in some form. Thus, Thomson would have ...


2

During his dictatorship, candidates were appointed by Sulla for reasons of his own. I believe the elections of 79 BC were also restricted access. In 78 AD, the consul Lepidus ran on a platform of reforming Sulla's changes and won the top spot. This was probably the first fully free election the Romans had in the post-Sullan period. Plutarch's Life of ...


2

The bald eagle is the symbol of the United States due to its presence on the Great Seal of the United States. The Great Seal was developed by several different Congressionally-appointed committees and went through various design changes. The first appearance of a bird on a proposed design was a phoenix, recommended by William Barton, an expert on heraldry. ...


1

There is enough similarity in the names that this would appear to be a transcription error, for which true resolution would require referencing the oldest extant manuscripts for both sources. Manuscript transcription is an extremely complex process, and many medieval monks performing transcription are now believed to have been only marginally literate; ...



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