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30

Actually, the Romans used the same phalanx everyone else did for a very long time. Past Hannibal. The essence of winning a phalanx battle is to attack the flank of the phalanx. One may achieve that many ways, hence the many ways phalanxes were formed in particular battles - adapted to the width of the battlefield usually, though if one's enemy overdid that, ...


10

First of all, Carthage did not fall in the First or Second Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were defeated twice, and compelled to surrender to particularly harsh terms the second time, but the City of Carthage itself was not conquered. Keep in mind that Carthage was not some run of the mill city-state, but rather the capital of a far flung maritime empire. ...


9

The Romans were very good in copying tactics and equipment from other peoples. They learned the Phalanx from the Etruscans. The phalanx works like a wall: difficult to get through, but also almost impossible to maneuver. When the Romans met their new enemies the Samnites, a people from the mountains, they saw that the Samnites were armed with long shields ...


9

As I remember, the biggest problems of phalanx were slow pace and inability to operate on a rough terrain (consider the length of their spears). In the battle of Pydna the macedonians had early success yet the romans were able to regroup and won the battle in the later counter-attack. So the phalanx was pretty good for one-time onslaught but in an advanced ...


8

It is not necessarily be problematic if the censors disagreed. Scholars have generally thought that only one censor was chosen by lot to nominate the Princeps Senatus alone. If correct, then in the event of disagreements between the censors, the chosen one would have the final say. Much support for this theory is inferred from the 209 dispute (see below), ...


6

Referring to the documentary series "Conquest" of history channel may be a bit too much on the popular side of popular-science but I think they have a point (or rather some). From what I remember they said: shields grew in size allowing to push into rows of spears and lock them between the shields while staying unhurt and weight, compensating the ...


4

First of all, at the time Sallust had written his book, Fulvia Bambula was a quite famous person. I believe, it would be strange if he would have said "Fulvia" yet had omitted "Bambula". Moreover, his words give the impression that she had no personal political value (cf. his passage about Sempronia Tuditania), and yet had much financial difficulties: ...


3

The frontline was still quite long: a maniple typically consisted of 120 soldiers arrayed in 3 ranks of 40 men when engaged in battle. each line had about 10 maniples and neighbouring maniples had a space of a maniple between them. That makes the frontline 19×40 = 760 men wide. Lets say that each man had a "personal space" of 1,5 meter (which is not ...


3

This graph seems to show somewhat of you're looking for: http://mappinghistory.uoregon.edu/english/EU/EU02-02.html The graph shows that: between 500 BC and 350 BC, there were between 100,000 and 200,000 citizens between 350 BC and 225 BC, there were between 200,000 and 300,000 citizens There was a 100,000 citizen dip from 225 BC to 175 BC during the ...


3

The Roman numeral system was "designed" for calculating using an abacus. One wrote out the number by the values of each channel (we picture an abacus as a wood frame with wires holding columns of beads for counters but the Romans would usually have used a table, a "TV-tray" if you will, covered with ample sand, running a finger down for the lines, and ...


3

Talking specifically about Syria after Crassus death, Cassius had to take care of the province for about next two years. The new proconsul - well-known Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus who was consul in 59 B.C. together with Ceasar - was sent only in 51 B.C. But this should be considered as an absolutely critical situation (e.g. in 52 B.C. Pompeus Magnus was consul ...


3

I found two estimations about the number of slaves for the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. P. Brunt [1] estimates there were 3 000 000 slaves in a total population of 7 500 000 people. J.C. Dumont [2] estimates that at least 32% of the population was in slavery. From these numbers, we deduce that roughly 60% of the population were free. Halve this proportion ...


2

Manpower Prior to the Marian Reforms (107 BC), Roman Legions were primarily comprised of conscripts (the word Legion actually derives from the Latin word for conscription/selection). This was limited to able-bodied, property-owning Roman Citizens. Soldiers paid for their own equipment, which dictated the formation and structure of the legion. The poorest ...


2

Quaestors had neither lictors nor fasces. Originally quaestors, as the name shows, were a kind of "investigators". But the right to fasces signified a right of deciding life and death, which was only appliable to praetors (i.e. "judges") and higher magistrates, i.e. consuls and dictators. Also, on the matter of lictors, we perfectly know that even aediles ...


1

Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, consul, censor, and Princeps Senatus in the late republic took over the management of the grain supply, essentially an Aedile's post. In Colleen McCulloch's semi-fiction books he did this when the man originally having the post was (falsely) accused of corruption, IIRC. The Wiki Quote goes way too far in claiming that this post ...


1

I believe the rotation in battle is commonly accepted - most sources I've read reference it, although my research in Roman history is mostly secondary and tertiary sources, so I'm not an authority. With that as a preface/caveat: Wikipedia to the rescue wikipedia 1 describes using the intervals between troops to execute a refresh and support continuous ...


1

As you maybe noticed, the Wikipedia article has no references, and so it is difficult to determine what is actually meant by calling it a "legal collegium" In the Roman republic, a collegium was a social society with a common reference for its members such as a specific craft. Carpenters or soldiers e.g. It was a common obligation in the Collegium to secure ...



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