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16

@YannisRizos answered the question. It is not known what he said, but the result was that the Roman masses became very angry with Caesar's murderers, burnt down their houses and made them flee from he city. Livius Appian's transcript of Mark Anthony's funeral oration, suggests that Shakespeare wrote for the stage, not for historical accuracy (although ...


9

The Romans would have a tactic of three lines, where first the the second and then the third line would press themselves between the first line when needed to let the first line get a breather and reform. When the first line as a whole had done its best and become weakened and exhausted by losses, it gave way to the relief of fresh men from the second ...


6

There is a text of Cicero in which he defends a friend of his, named Milo. Milo was on trial for the murder of P. Clodius Pulcher, but manumitted (freed) all his slaves in advance. Roman slaves where required to be tortured for evidence against their master, hence freeing them will make this impossible. (Cicero, Speech in Defense of Milo 57, 58). I don't ...


4

You are attempting to distinguish between the Latin term for the individual who governed a province in place of the Republic's Consuls, Proconsul, and the modern English functional term for such an individual, Governor. Such a distinction is meaningless; The terms have an identical meaning when referring to individuals who exercised consular power in a ...


4

Just to answer myself: According to Stephen Dando-Collins in his book "Caesar's Legion" he names them as the 2nd and the Indigena legions. (See comments though) Nic Fields in his book "The Roman Army: Civil Wars" (page 57) names these former Pompey legions as the 2nd and Vernacula legions. (Vernacula comes also from Caesar's War Commentaries). The ...


3

Declaring a holy war does not magically create additional resources for war. That presupposes the nation had a large reservoir of untapped strength that could be utilised by religious zeal. Christendom had lords and trained armies of professional warriors (knights). The Caliphate united tribes of Arabs and were fortunate enough to find two exhausted empires ...


3

As has been noted, the eagle became the national bird because it was chosen to be on the Great Seal, designed by Charles Thomson. The idea did not emerge out of thin air, however; the eagle is a very popular emblem with a very long history in heraldry. Two of the three committees designing the seal included the eagle in some form. Thus, Thomson would have ...


2

The Western Empire fell in 410. However, beginning in the fourth century, more and more of the barbarian tribes were converting to Christianity, so a "Holy War" against them would not make sense. The Visigoths, Othrogoths, and Vandals converted to Arian Christianity. These tribes flourished and spread during the late Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or ...


2

The bald eagle is the symbol of the United States due to its presence on the Great Seal of the United States. The Great Seal was developed by several different Congressionally-appointed committees and went through various design changes. The first appearance of a bird on a proposed design was a phoenix, recommended by William Barton, an expert on heraldry. ...


1

There is enough similarity in the names that this would appear to be a transcription error, for which true resolution would require referencing the oldest extant manuscripts for both sources. Manuscript transcription is an extremely complex process, and many medieval monks performing transcription are now believed to have been only marginally literate; ...


1

This guy was elected consul in absentia in 348 BC.


1

During his dictatorship, candidates were appointed by Sulla for reasons of his own. I believe the elections of 79 BC were also restricted access. In 78 AD, the consul Lepidus ran on a platform of reforming Sulla's changes and won the top spot. This was probably the first fully free election the Romans had in the post-Sullan period. Plutarch's Life of ...



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