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16

Bernard of Italy, illegitimate son of Pepin of Italy (himself a legitimate son of Charlemagne), became king of the Lombards in 810. Edward the Martyr, briefly king of England from 975 to 978, was probably illegitimate; his father Edgar I acknowledged his younger son Æthelred as the only rightful heir (but Edgar's opinion lost most of its strength when he ...


11

According to the Catholics of the time, Elizabeth I was illegitimate, since the Catholic church never recognised the marriage of Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Not that Elizabeth was ever king ;-) Even the Protestant parliament of England retroactively declared her illegitimate, with no place in the succession, when they annulled the same marriage (in 1536?). ...


11

Cleopatra's bastard with Julius Caesar, Caesarion, ruled jointly with his mother as the last kings of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. After Caesar's assassination, Cleopatra went on to acquire a set of bastard twins from Mark Antony. Had they won their bid for power against Octavian, the male twin Alexander Helios would have been on track to succeed as the ...


9

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


9

Nothing happens at all. This is essentially a question of two parts. Part one is unstated, but important, and it is the question of who is legitimate monarch. First of all, legitimacy does not, as Tony Robinson claims, rest on blood. Legitimacy rests on being accepted as legitimate. This sounds like a tautology, and on some level it is, but on another ...


9

Byzantine Empire was not formally a hereditary monarchy. There was no law which regulated inheritance in Byzantine Empire. Nevertheless the offsprings of the imperial family sold the right to claim the throne to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, Spanish monarchs. This was inherited by Charles V, Holy Roman emperor. Yet he never styled himself a ...


8

In addition to Anixx's answer, check out Andreas Palaiologos - the oldest newphew of Constantine (the last emperor). Looks like he sold his "rights" to the Byzantine throne twice, both to France and Spain. And his younger brother sold them to... gasp... the Ottomans. Well, they had to get some money for high living. Which brings us to another aspect: Mehmed ...


7

In case of India: From 1773 to 1858, the British administrative head in India was called Governor General and was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. After the 1857 Uprising, the government of India was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown. And "Viceroy" was added to the title of the ...


6

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946. 2001, Simeon resumed the role of leader of the nation upon taking office as Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria from July 2001 until August 2005. But there were no plans of a restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy.


6

First, I am assuming that you are giving your fantasy world a "Western European" flavour. Working from this assumption there are still a myriad details that vary from nation to nation within Western Europe, but in general the two houses are allied, but the offspring only marshall the coat of arms; the husband and wife are each only entitled to their own ...


6

Appanage Cadet branches arise under the system of Primogeniture when a younger son receives appanage and manages to establish it as a power base to his own line. Note that the "line" here is not an independent royal line, it is a line of (senior) vassals to the main royal line. If the main line dies out, the cadet line will claim the throne, but otherwise ...


6

Henry I, the 3rd norman King of England, died after eating a surfeit of lampreys after going on a hunting trip while ill. Apparently eating them was against the advice of his physician. Lampreys were pretty common fare in Early Medieval Britain but are pretty gross eel-like fish that still happily inhabit English rivers today. It is likely that they weren't ...


5

During the preparation of the royal wedding between The Royal Heiress to the Swedish throne and a commoner, people talked about heraldry and the possibility that a new royal house will emerge. But this changed when The Royal Household afirmed that the commener Westling will change and add his surname into The Royal Family name.


5

So your fantasy is about about a common man obtaining a title by marrying into a noble family? To my best knowledge the chances of this happening are slim. What is more likely is that the woman (or at least her children) will lose her title. As cases in points in recent history, consider Alfonso Díez Carabantes (the third husband of the Duchess of Alba and ...


5

A viceroy is a "vice-king" (roi is French for king). Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II were/are female "kings," (not queens in the usual sense of wife of a king). Dominions held in the name of the king or queen (e.g. Queen Victoria was Empress of India) would be ruled by "Viceroys." Other colonies were held in the name of Britain, rather than the ruler. ...


5

As far as I know, Ludovic is just the Latin form of the name Louis.


5

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without ...


4

As mentioned already by Mark C. Wallace, one of the key aspects of the English Civil War was the divine right of the Monarchy. The Bill of Rights Act 1689 established that the succession to the throne is regulated by Parliament and not by any divine right. The following lines state that James the II abdicated the government and left the throne vacant when ...


4

Tancred of Lecce was King of Sicily.


4

Well, in 1946 the Italians voted to abolish the kingdom and create the republic, basically because the monarchy was tainted by association with Mussolini. Italy's monarchy was a stronger one (in my estimation) than the East European ones but still it couldn't weather the storm. I have the impression that in Eastern Europe the real prestige of the monarchies ...


4

In the church of Rome there was no contradiction between being both a member of the church and being titled. In fact, some entire states were ruled by priests. For example, the Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent principality for centuries right in the middle of Europe which was ruled by an archbishop who was inevitably from some noble family. The ...


4

It is the baton of the Constable of France, or rather an imitation of it. The explanation of this particular baton is that William of Orange was originally the disciple and member of the court of Holy Roman Emperor, King Charles V. Charles fought many wars in France and as a sort of propaganda measure Charles let himself out as following in the tradition of ...


3

There are a bunch of monarchists in modern Russia. Some are "theoretical" monarchists, some want to bring back Romanovs, some want Putin to be the Tzar. Monarchist party in Russia launched Wikipedia List of monarchist organizations - Russia An article on monarchists in Russia: At various times, politicians from across the political spectrum have ...


3

Since the gods were thought to be creators of the world, it was quite difficult for ancient people to think the gods were unrelated to the power in some manner. Any leader (not only king but also a general) had to convince their people and soldiers that the gods were at least loyal to their side to maintain good morale. Also in the ancient states often the ...


3

King Cnut of Denmark once hosted an experiment that proved he was not divine, when the tide disobeyed his order. He had heirs too, separately for each throne, though. Also, the entire culture of Japan in the middle-ages doesn't really approach the concept of divinity and God in the same way as Western culture did, so it could be argued that the Japanese ...


3

In one unusual circumstance, when the Count von Bohlen married Bertha Krupp (of the Krupp arms house), the man (von Bohlen) was asked by the Kaiser to add his wife's surname, Krupp, to his own. They became the Krupp von Bohlnens. This was true, even though as a member of the nobility, von Bohlen technically outranked his (commoner) wife. But the name ...


3

This is most likely a Baton, which is a symbol for a field marshal or high ranking military officer. He was involved in the Invasion of England in 1688 and War in Europe later on, so is probably a symbol to show his military involvement. The Baton does not have any practical use.


2

No the English Royal family does not claim divine right. One of the key issues of the English Civil War was the Stuart claim to divine right. Divine right was refuted first when they cut off the head of the last monarch to assert it, and then again in the classic Reflections on the Revolution in France. I don't have that work with me right now, but it ...


2

Óengus Olmucaid was a high king of Ireland who also conquered and ruled Scotland in approximately 1000 BC. Around the time of Jesus there was a large emmigration to Albion (Western Scotland) at which time the kingdom of the Dal Riata was firmly established. Later Scottish rulers invariably descend at least in part from this kingdom, the Kings of the Dal ...


2

Under English law and tradition, just as the spouse of a King is a Queen consort rather than a Queen Regnant, the spouse of a Queen Regnant is a King Consort and not a King Regnant or Monarch. Other dynastic and national traditions may vary, as for example for Catherine the Great in Russia as well as her grand-mother-in-law Tsarina Catherine I. Update: In ...



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