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72

One key lies in their treatment of illegitimacy, or bastardy. In Roman society, as is typical of the West in general, illegitimate children had no formal link to their fathers. This was true from the earliest times, and lasted well into the Imperial period before a softening of the laws occurred in the second and third centuries.1 In the Roman setting, ...


20

Bernard of Italy, illegitimate son of Pepin of Italy (himself a legitimate son of Charlemagne), became king of the Lombards in 810. Edward the Martyr, briefly king of England from 975 to 978, was probably illegitimate; his father Edgar I acknowledged his younger son Æthelred as the only rightful heir (but Edgar's opinion lost most of its strength when he ...


13

According to the Catholics of the time, Elizabeth I was illegitimate, since the Catholic church never recognised the marriage of Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn. Not that Elizabeth was ever king ;-) Even the Protestant parliament of England retroactively declared her illegitimate, with no place in the succession, when they annulled the same marriage (in 1536?). ...


12

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without children),...


12

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


12

Cleopatra's bastard with Julius Caesar, Caesarion, ruled jointly with his mother as the last kings of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. After Caesar's assassination, Cleopatra went on to acquire a set of bastard twins from Mark Antony. Had they won their bid for power against Octavian, the male twin Alexander Helios would have been on track to succeed as the ...


12

@SteveBird makes a good point. You would have to go a good way back to find any ancestor of Britain's present Queen who was actually born in Germany. But the reason for so many Germans in the 18th & 19th centuries may have been due to the fact that there were so many German royals. In 1866 there were 42 German states, including Austria and Prussia. ...


11

Louis Philippe II the Duke of Orléans, who avidly supported the French Revolution - arguably, the quintessential revolution of the modern era. As First Prince of the Blood, he was one of the most senior members of the ruling Bourbon dynasty. In fact his son would assume the French throne in 1830. I think he qualifies both as a royal and member of the high ...


9

Nothing happens at all. This is essentially a question of two parts. Part one is unstated, but important, and it is the question of who is legitimate monarch. First of all, legitimacy does not, as Tony Robinson claims, rest on blood. Legitimacy rests on being accepted as legitimate. This sounds like a tautology, and on some level it is, but on another ...


9

In case of India: From 1773 to 1858, the British administrative head in India was called Governor General and was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. After the 1857 Uprising, the government of India was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown. And "Viceroy" was added to the title of the ...


9

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946. 2001, Simeon resumed the role of leader of the nation upon taking office as Prime Minister of the Republic of Bulgaria from July 2001 until August 2005. But there were no plans of a restoration of the Bulgarian monarchy.


9

In addition to Anixx's answer, check out Andreas Palaiologos - the oldest newphew of Constantine (the last emperor). Looks like he sold his "rights" to the Byzantine throne twice, both to France and Spain. And his younger brother sold them to... gasp... the Ottomans. Well, they had to get some money for high living. Which brings us to another aspect: Mehmed ...


9

Byzantine Empire was not formally a hereditary monarchy. There was no law which regulated inheritance in Byzantine Empire. Nevertheless the offsprings of the imperial family sold the right to claim the throne to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, Spanish monarchs. This was inherited by Charles V, Holy Roman emperor. Yet he never styled himself a ...


7

Are you restricting your question to a certain time period? If not, then there are a number of examples, besides those already given in the other answers, which could qualify: France has vacillated between a republic and a monarchy several times; the First Republic was succeeded by the First Empire under Napoleon, after which the Bourbon kingdom was ...


7

Appanage Cadet branches arise under the system of Primogeniture when a younger son receives appanage and manages to establish it as a power base to his own line. Note that the "line" here is not an independent royal line, it is a line of (senior) vassals to the main royal line. If the main line dies out, the cadet line will claim the throne, but otherwise ...


7

Henry I, the 3rd norman King of England, died after eating a surfeit of lampreys after going on a hunting trip while ill. Apparently eating them was against the advice of his physician. Lampreys were pretty common fare in Early Medieval Britain but are pretty gross eel-like fish that still happily inhabit English rivers today. It is likely that they weren't ...


7

So your fantasy is about about a common man obtaining a title by marrying into a noble family? To my best knowledge the chances of this happening are slim. What is more likely is that the woman (or at least her children) will lose her title. As cases in points in recent history, consider Alfonso Díez Carabantes (the third husband of the Duchess of Alba and ...


6

First, I am assuming that you are giving your fantasy world a "Western European" flavour. Working from this assumption there are still a myriad details that vary from nation to nation within Western Europe, but in general the two houses are allied, but the offspring only marshall the coat of arms; the husband and wife are each only entitled to their own arms....


6

During the preparation of the royal wedding between The Royal Heiress to the Swedish throne and a commoner, people talked about heraldry and the possibility that a new royal house will emerge. But this changed when The Royal Household afirmed that the commener Westling will change and add his surname into The Royal Family name.


6

A viceroy is a "vice-king" (roi is French for king). Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II were/are female "kings," (not queens in the usual sense of wife of a king). Dominions held in the name of the king or queen (e.g. Queen Victoria was Empress of India) would be ruled by "Viceroys." Other colonies were held in the name of GreatBritain, rather than the ...


6

Well, in 1946 the Italians voted to abolish the kingdom and create the republic, basically because the monarchy was tainted by association with Mussolini. Italy's monarchy was a stronger one (in my estimation) than the East European ones but still it couldn't weather the storm. I have the impression that in Eastern Europe the real prestige of the monarchies ...


5

As far as I know, Ludovic is just the Latin form of the name Louis.


4

Since the gods were thought to be creators of the world, it was quite difficult for ancient people to think the gods were unrelated to the power in some manner. Any leader (not only king but also a general) had to convince their people and soldiers that the gods were at least loyal to their side to maintain good morale. Also in the ancient states often the ...


4

There was a referendum to restore the Albanian monarchy in 1997, following a period of severe unrest. The official results of the referendum had the motion failing by a 2-1 margin; the monarchists then claimed that the result was invalid, riots broke out, and the crown prince Leka fled the country and was tried in absentia for inciting rebellion. The ...


4

In one unusual circumstance, when the Count von Bohlen married Bertha Krupp (of the Krupp arms house), the man (von Bohlen) was asked by the Kaiser to add his wife's surname, Krupp, to his own. They became the Krupp von Bohlens. This was true, even though as a member of the nobility, von Bohlen technically outranked his (commoner) wife. But the name "...


4

Tancred of Lecce was King of Sicily.


4

As mentioned already by Mark C. Wallace, one of the key aspects of the English Civil War was the divine right of the Monarchy. The Bill of Rights Act 1689 established that the succession to the throne is regulated by Parliament and not by any divine right. The following lines state that James the II abdicated the government and left the throne vacant when ...


4

In the church of Rome there was no contradiction between being both a member of the church and being titled. In fact, some entire states were ruled by priests. For example, the Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent principality for centuries right in the middle of Europe which was ruled by an archbishop who was inevitably from some noble family. The ...


4

It is the baton of the Constable of France, or rather an imitation of it. The explanation of this particular baton is that William of Orange was originally the disciple and member of the court of Holy Roman Emperor, King Charles V. Charles fought many wars in France and as a sort of propaganda measure Charles let himself out as following in the tradition of ...


4

The Romans had two institutions that the Eastern rulers lacked: monogamy, and primogeniture. Monogamy meant that even wealthy Romans would have only one wife. One might have plenty of mistresses on the side, but these weren't "wives. Which led to the next thing, primogeniture. That is, inheritance of the family line by the one and only oldest son, begotten ...



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