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49

Because Russia had been at war with Britain for most of the preceding two decades. One of Russia's problems in owning Alaska was defending it against it being used as a British route to invade Russia (militarily insane - but that's politics) - remember Canada was British at the time. By selling it to America they installed one of Britain's adversaries in ...


24

First of all, aircraft carriers are expensive. Russia (compared to USA) was never resource-rich enough to be able to afford the expense; neither was USSR. Second of all, Russia (or rather USSR) had no motivation. USA's main geopolitical goal is to safeguard seabourne trade routes; and to prevent strong competitors from arising and commanding great sets of ...


22

It is depending on your definition of a Russian. Gagarin was born in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, so he was the first Russian in space. Sergei Krikaljow (also a Russian) started as a citizen of the Soviet Union, when the Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991 he was in space. So he was the first citizen of the Russian ...


21

Yes. Originally, Moscow became a center of power as a defensive measure against Mongols, since it was seen as a "remote, forested location" for the descendants of Kievan Rus. One Wikipedia article says that "a number of rivers provided access to the Baltic and Black Seas and to the Caucasus region", but it seems to me it is in the Volga basin, so the best ...


21

Existence The existence of a Southern Land was postulated by the Greeks, on grounds of symmetry. Aristotle (Meterologica, II, 5) writes: Now since there must be a region bearing the same relation to the southern pole as the place we live in bears to our pole, it will clearly correspond in the ordering of its winds as well as in other things. So just as ...


14

It wasn't as simple as "13 against 4" as the question states. Russians only had 8 real battleships. 3 were coastal defense Ushakov class battleships. The entire order of battle was significantly less lopsided than the ratio above indicates. Even leaving aside ship quality, the quantity was (from Wiki) | Japan | Russia | ...


14

A Russian revolution caused by the Bolsheviks was most definitely the goal of the Germans when they allowed Lenin to pass through their lands. Germany wished to undermine, or end, the Russian war effort and sending Lenin back was done for that purpose. If true, who came up with the idea and was there any consideration that a communist Russia could ...


13

The first one says USSR (right below the star) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and peasants See http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/const/36cons01.html (constitution of the USSR), Article 1. The second one says "VKP(b)" in the top-right corner meaning All-Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) or All-Union ...


13

Let's split this into two questions. First, is it plausible that a population of Russian emigrants from the White émigré population would sing this Soviet song. And second, was it the intention of the film makers to portray the Russian emigrants as influenced by Soviet culture. According to Wikipedia, Russian Americans came to America in four waves: the ...


12

Russia and America (the Union) were very nearly allies during the Civil War. The implied enemies were the South (Confederacy) and Great Britain. Although Russia wanted to "monetize" Alaska, she also wanted it in "friendly" hands. The (re-united) U.S. fit the bill. Great Britain did not, after having allied with France and Turkey in the Crimean war.


12

Japan agreed to pay war reparations of 1.3 trillion yen. The Japanese GDP in 1952 was 6,217 billion yen. So the reparation was 20.91% of the Japanese GDP. The Japanese GDP in 2011 was equivalent to $5.869 trillion 2011 USD. So the reparations were equivalent to 1,224 billion 2011 USD. This was all proposed at the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952. The soviet ...


11

It's a bit of a long write-up, but the best reason is fairly easy to trace on a map. The southern border of Russia between Caspian and Black seas is pretty defenseless as far as natural features (same is true for other borders). So historically, Russia worked/fought to extend its borders to defensible ranges, in case of this specific area, the Greater ...


11

The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 established a clear border between American and Russian lands on the West Coast as well as trade. It gave Russian claims south of parallel 54°40′ north to the US. Russia was inclined to give away this territory, which was in dispute between them, Britain, America and Spain, to insure their undisputed and ongoing ownership ...


11

There was a serious drop in GDP. The following graphic shows drop in GDP per captia for Russian Federation (not the USSR): Passengers transported by civil air transport (RSFSR compared to Russia): Passengers transported by intercity rail transport: There was also a serious drop in demographic indicators. The following plot shows birth rate (red), ...


10

The “bela” stems from the common Slavic root for “white”, as has been discussed in the other answers. There were also historical regions called the “Red” and the “Black” Rus’ (Ruthenia) on the territory of todays Belarus and Ukraine-- the Grand Duchy of Lithuania of the middle ages. The origin of the “Rus” part of Belarus is somewhat uncertain. It is first ...


9

The USSR was created in 1922 so the first one for sure cannot be from 1918. The cited first article of the constitution belongs to the constitution of 1936. The image clearly attributes it to the constitution (by small font below the phrase it says "from the constitution of the Soviet Union" and the entire phrase is in the quotes. So my guess is that the ...


9

This is an interesting question. With the benefit of hindsight, "Russia" wasn't in a position to help Saddam Hussein in 1990-91 because the Soviet was about to implode. The reason it probably didn't help Hussein in 2003 was that they didn't believe that President George Bush Jr. would invade Iraq; his father, Bush Sr., had declined to march on Baghdad ...


8

First note that besides Chechnya there are some related and similar peoples in the North Caucasus: Ingushs, Dagestan peoples, Adygh people, Circassians etc. That is Chechnya is only a part of greater North Caucasus community. The ancient lifestyle of most of these people, and especially, of Chechens was making raids on neighboring settlements, capturing ...


8

To complement kubanczyk's excellent answer: Moscow's rise to power was the result of a masterful political play by their rulers jockeying for power/position in front of the Horde (e.g. Mongols). It was cemented when Moscow's Dmitry Donskoj and his army was the main force behind the first battle where Russians defeated Mongols (Kulikovo Field battle). As ...


8

I think Stalin is quite popular in Russia. It would be quite surprising if Stalin was not that popular. The popularity of Stalin today may be even greater than it was in 1970s and 1980s. There are multiple reasons. First of all, Stalin is credited for winning the Great Patriotic War, the most bloody war in human history and the history of Russia. Many ...


8

Belarus was earlier called White Russia. Belo is the "Russian" word for White. It is probably not a reference to the Latin "bella" or beautiful. Nor do I believe that "Rus" is a reference to a woman. "Rus" was a reference to a group of Vikings who settled the western parts of what later became the Soviet Union, including modern Belarus and the Ukraine. ...


8

The Review Article, Antony Kalashnikov (2012) "Differing Interpretations: Causes of the Collapse of the Soviet Union" Constellations: "there is a correlation between mediums of writing and the "factor of collapse" they tend to espouse." "that the historiography is best classified by "factors for collapse", and that these are: economic, nationalities, ...


8

The Dardanelles campaign was as much about resupplying Russia as knocking the Ottoman Empire out of the war by taking the capital, Istanbul. It's also easy to say in retrospect that not enough soldiers and ships were sent to that theatre, but at the time the commanders evidently thought they had enough. Calling the effort "half-baked" only makes sense with ...


8

Vienna was besieged in 1683. In the Treaty of Bakhchisarai, Russia agreed not to fight Ottoman Empire for the time between 1681 and 1701, and actually kept the promise... until 1686 that is. Then it joined the European coalition and started Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700), which it won, gaining Azov and Taganrog. Both were lost soon in 1711, Azov re-taken by ...


8

Interesting question and highly creative conjectures but ultimately the answer is no. The trade routes didn't play much of a role: Russian trade remained oriented on Western Europe; as for the great Russian music, it was the product of the 19-20th centuries and followed and developed, once again, Western patterns. So, to sum up: I can't think of any ...


8

On October, 20-21 1941, the German occupation authority of Borisov (headed by Stanislav Stankevich with the participation of obersturmfuerer Kraffe) performed liquidation of the Jewish ghetto. At the day were killed 7 245 Jews. The upcoming action was announced on a banquet by the city administration. The performers were mostly Russian auxiliary police ...


8

There are not many situations of annexation or unification in recent history, and most of those are accompanied by warfare or guerrilla violence. So this is a relatively unusual situation. Given the narrow question you asked, the most obvious answer is German unification. The DDR/GDR basically just dissolved and those East German Lander were incorporated ...


8

I'll just try to put some further tidbits into the three questions. "Lenins Rückkehr nach Russland 1917: Die deutschen Akten" has from Page 39 on a telegram conversation between the German ambassador in Bern von Romberg and the Auswärtige Amt (Foreign Bureau). It starts with von Romberg 7th September 1914: Russian, who seems to have contact with ...


7

In my reading of Lenin, he very rarely criticizes Marx. He is much more interested in developing the dialectical concepts of Marx (ie. Speaking to the development of capitalism, the worker's struggle , and the tactics of the of socialist movements. ). That said , his major theoretical developments was to challenge the overly mechanical interpretation of ...


7

I think everyone who has posted here (@ihtkwot, @mgb, @Russell) have all brought up important points. I agree with @ihtkwot and @Russell that Russia simply did not have the military capacity to challenge Britain's hold on India (a territory that the British would have vigorously defended). Also, Russia seemed far more interested in territories to the west ...



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