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12

The largest city in Europe was Knossos in Minoan Crete, which according to Wikipedia reached as much as 100,000 people by 1600 BCE (Pendlebury & Evans 2003, p. 35). In comparison, the cities of Ur in Mesopotamia and Memphis in Egypt attained 60,000 people by 2000 BCE. The Mycenaean culture of Greece is well known to us via Greek legends. A warlike ...


9

Yes, your suspicion is correct. Once man had boats (no later than 40,000 years ago) and the ability to live in the arctic, the island chains strung across the Bering Straight could not have been a significant barrier. There are native peoples who traverse it regularly today using native methods. As for evidence, archeologically we know about the Thule ...


9

Where to start? Starting from the forced exchange of population between Greece and Turkey in 1923, you will find no shortage of examples, some of truly unbelievable scale. Among the most prominent ones are population transfer and Russian settlements in the former USSR (considering the brutality of the regime, I think it is beyond dispute that these satisfy ...


6

I can think of several examples which are big enough, recent enough and well known enough not to be disputed. In 1938 the Germans occupied Czechoslovakia, and civilians were free to settle there under the "Lebensraum" (breathing room) philosophy. The occupation was (at first) of an area populated mostly by ethnic Germans, but legally at least that doesn't ...


6

I recently read a book, Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture that purports to challenge the foot traffic in two ways - first that ancient peoples were far more handy on boats than current thought, so a foot path isn't needed for them to spread, and second that evidence for passage from the Bering area is fairly thin in the period where ...


5

Although the Convention of 1818 and the subsequent 1846 Oregon Treaty might be considered here, these both predate the establishment of a true Canadian Government. Hence I think the following Acts and acts of the post-1867 Government and people of Canada best answer the question: Purchase of Rupert's Land in 1869 from the Hudson's Bay Company and the ...


5

It is easy to view the distance between Botany Bay and Port Jackson as small by today's standards, but it is actually a considerable 'trek'. Even with todays excellent roads, it takes two and a half hours to walk from Circular Quay (and the better soil around Port Jackson) to the northern edge of Botany Bay. Then consider you have to carry supplies over ...


3

How about in 1948 when India invaded Hyderabad and conquered it? Any Indians who since moved to the area are also occupying settlers.


2

Crimea (occupied by Russia from Crimean tatars, with tatars forcibly deported and Russians moved in). Later re-occupied in 2014, with both Ukrainians and Crimean tatars being discriminated against (the leader of Crimean tatars was exiled). Königsberg, which USSR occupied, de-germanized, and turned into Russian-majority Калинингра́д.


2

One example is the Russian population in Kazakhstan. (The USSR transferred large populations around, so this is probably not the only example.) Settlement started in the 19th century, but increased in the 20th century. According to Wikipedia, by 1917, 30% of the population was Russian. Many more Russians arrived in the years 1953-1965,during the ...


2

I would recommend many of the books that are part of the "Lakeside Classics." The anthology consists of many diaries and descriptions of settler life for the time period you are concerned with. To quote from their website: "Many of the early volumes consisted of the speeches and writings of noted Americans. With the publication in 1911 of "The ...


2

I'm quite sure that they usually took the Oregon trail and didn't go through Arizona. Usually, families traveld in groups. Sources: Oregon trail game and Laura Ingalls Wilder. Little House in the Big Woods Farmer Boy Banks of Plum Creek By the Shores of Silver Lake The Long Winter Little Town on the Prairie These books are mainly autobiographies of ...


1

French Algeria might qualify. Algeria was conquered militarily and maintained under French control against regular rebellions. Its status within the empire was very different from other colonies, with a tight integration to France itself, while maintaining a sharp distinction between “natives” and “Europeans” (which included not only settlers coming from ...



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