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1

When following both German (eastern front) and Soviet official loss figures 22th June 1941 to 31 Decemberg 1944 we will get these figures: Total German losses: 5 790 459 killed, wounded, missing Total Soviet losses: 26 579 242 killed, wounded, missing Loss rate: 1:4,59 (nobody knows what were German loss figures during last four months of 1945, official ...


4

The problem is the definition. Great Purge as itself wasn't a single event under Stalin's rule but waves of executions and convictions. In fact after Lenin's death in 1922 Stalin came to power. With increasing intensity he started to deal with rivals, first politically, then he had enough power to order uncontrolled massacre. The most famous period is the ...


2

It was a requirement for science to match ideology rather than just deriving objective conclusions. Ideologists assumed that accepting gene theory makes easier to justify large inequality between social classes and nations, something that Marxists are formally against. Or Honorary Aryan. Or act of creation as origin of life. While existence of genes does ...


0

Thank goodness it was not technically possible to put hidden cameras and listening devices into every house using vacuum tube technology of the time, the control means needed to be social (A have heard B saying bad things about C and would like to report this). Most of public aspects were controlled.


2

Stalin himself officially declared for the whole nation that very close, in the famous Order No 227 ("Not one step back!"). This unlikely to be a very good propaganda so probably true.


2

No, they were not. Church was an "opium for the folk" so church institutions could not deserve to be decorated with respected symbols of communism. This Marx phrase was the official view. Soviet regime was strong enough on its own. There was no need for it to accept any help from religious institutions, even if offered. And the official negative position ...


2

During post-Stalin time, it was kind of "moderate persecution": it was possible to visit church briefly "to look into architecture and paintings", but practicing openly was not good for the job carrier. On the contrary, belonging to the Communist party was very good for the carrier, and this was of course fully incompatible. Membership in Komsomol was also ...


3

Often enough, when a nation wants to separate there is enough animus to stop much yearning for the old anthems. In the American Civil War, the South quickly enough adopted songs like "Dixie" and "The Bonnie Blue Flag" as anthems. At the war's end, Lincoln said in public that we could now play Dixie as an anthem too because we had captured it.


4

During its entire history, Czechoslovakia had two anthems (or one anthem composed from two songs): the Czech song Kde domov můj and the Slovak song Nad Tatrou sa blýská. So, when Czechoslovakia broke up, the solution was simple: Czech Republic adopted Kde domov můj and Slovakia Nad Tatrou sa blýská as their anthems.


7

Religion as a motivation for Armstrong's solo visit is very unlikely. Armstrong was actually the 2nd U.S. Astronaut that travelled to the Soviet Union - the first was Frank Borman, who arrived in Moscow on July 2nd, 1969 after being invited by the U.S.S.R. Institute for Soviet-American Relations.1 Borman was among the more religious of the Apollo ...


5

A few points not covered in other excellent answers: Wealthy peasants, the Kulaks, were specifically targeted by Soviet regime. Whilst these peasants were comparably wealthy and resistant to land reform - they were also the farmers most likely to be literate, skilled and possessing efficient farming infrastructure. Killing these peasants reduced the ...


0

This is a question about economics, not history. Feeding people is no easy task. The typical person can easily eat through a panel truck full of food every year. The cost of this includes not only producing the food, but transporting and distributing it. Growing food and getting it to market is hard work and the farmer will demand something in return or he ...


1

You are making a number of assumptions here which are not correct. The basic mechnanism of the pre-war famines was this: Stalin was pursuing a policy of rapid and extensive industrialization. This policy, which was not based on organic growth, necessitated the purchase on a huge scale of Western (largely American) technology and expertise. Whole factories ...


8

I think implicit in this question is an underestimation of the difficulty of feeding a nation. In a market economy, it seems to happen magically as prices coordinate labor and resources, but commanding the millions of people with disparate knowledge successfully is actually incredibly difficult. Consider the famous example of the pencil ...


2

A lot of the time it was the Soviet Union government deliberately trying to starve some of their people to get rid of the "undesirable" people. Sometimes it was because the Soviet Union government didn't know how to properly feed their people, and when they did they chose to ignore the people. The last major famine in the USSR happened mainly in 1947, ...


0

Here are the numbers and no speculations. The share of lend-lease supplies to the total number of produced and delivered to the USSR products - 12% - tanks 8% - Self-propelled gun 12% - Airplanes 3% - Guns and mortars 22% - Ships 63% - Cars 1% - Firearms 3% - Gasoline 40% - Aviation petrol 35% - Rails 72% - Locomotives 35% - Explosives ...



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