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It is noteworthy that Simon Bolivar, the "liberator" of five South American countries, was born in 1783, the year America received its independence. His liberation wars began in the 1810s, the decade of America's War of 1812. So the question is like asking, "Were there any notable participants in both the American Revolution and the War of 1812?" Unlike the ...


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In general, it is problematic to call "nationalism" anything before the French Revolution, because before that the idea that the nation was a political subject was just political-fiction. Apart from that, before the second half of the XIX century, to many people it really did not affect much if his country was under the control of a foreign power. Travel ...


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Spain's feeling was that this was another instance of meddling in "internal affairs" by the expansionist American Colossus. Yes, Spain declared war to "preserve her honor," but Spain really had no reason to hope for success. By about 1900, America had nearly four times the population and eight times the GDP of Spain. (This was a near-reversal from the ...


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The Manchu Dynasty used flags to coordinate their massive Armies which conquered all of China in and around 1600. Since the Portuguese had already sailed as far by then it is interesting to speculate that Europe had developed an advanced system of "flagging techniques" prior to the Manchu...and perhaps used in this engagement which lasted for some time. (...


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There's very little concrete evidence about how command and control of the Spanish Armada worked, or indeed, how naval tactical control was exerted during that period, which pre-dates what we now call the Age of Sail. Most of the documentation that has survived from the Armada is correspondence that is essentially at the political level, i.e. between the ...


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For battle plans and such, they used dispatch boats (which they then called "Aviso" or "Adviso", as in advice boat). These would carry orders from shore to ship and from ship to ship. For maneuvers, like Pieter said: flags and horns. Lanterns at night for guiding purposes - as seen here, resulting in a scattered English fleet when Drake snuffed it for more ...


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The truth is that more Spaniards colonized america after their independence than before. Between XV-XVIII Spain colonized those lands with 750.000 Spaniards in overpopulated lands. Majority of them men were soldiers, marines and low-class class Spaniards and of course the nobility that occupied the elite. The majority of the population were "mestizos" the ...



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