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Howard has priority - he was the commander on the field after Reynolds was dead and before Hancock. He, unlike the others, actually occupied the hill with troops, keeping first a division and later a brigade there while the fighting was taking place on the north. That said, like many of these "choose the field" controversies, it doesn't take much genius to ...


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The reason for the re-emergence of the ram in the mid-1800s is essentially a technological one. The introduction of the nautical steam engine gave ships a reliable source of power and the ability to move in any direction, and the introduction of armor-plating gave them greater weight (and therefore momentum), structural strength and protection. During the ...


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There were very few naval wars and battles during the period in question, coupled with a rapid pace of innovation and uncertainty about the future development. Naval architects concluded from a few lethal, unintentional ramming incidents that intentional ramming was a viable tactic. They should have noted that if problems at course keeping led to ...


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During the mid-1800s improvements in naval armor and construction was progressing somewhat faster than that in naval guns. This made it difficult to sink ships. Even many years earlier, in the War of 1812, the USS Constitution was famous for having cannonballs bounce off her sides. The SMS Kaiser at the Battle of Lissa, though it was a wooden ship was very ...



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