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For the most part they borrowed the money. A lot of the money was borrowed from France and Holland who were both eager to make trouble for the British. For example, in June of 1787 John Adams borrowed 1 million guilders from Holland on behalf of the Congress. The congress also issued a lot of domestic debt, notably bonds they called "loan-office ...


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My answer is short but can be a complement to the nice answer by Semaphore. Already in the early 15th, from 1447 to 1449, un uprising by Deng Maoqi, a peasant in Fujian province occured. This suggest from the earlier stage of Ming's dynasty, the enocomic system was in chaotic mode. Quote The failure of these stern regulations against silver mining ...


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The Congress of the Confederation could "ascertain" and "appropriate" money from states or make "requisitions" on the States, as is stated in the Articles of Confederation: The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority . . . to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate ...


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In theory, not very. The most infamous of the late Ming taxes were what's the known as the Three Payments (三餉), so named because they were instituted to fund payments fo the army. From contemporary and Qing era history works such as the Veritable Records of Ming and the History of Ming, we know these were: 遼餉 (Liao Pay) - fund the defence of Liaodong ...



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