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You need to research George Cayley who worked out the principles of modern aircraft in the first decades of the 19th Century, and flew heavier than air gliders by mid century. But that should not detract from the real achievements of the Wright Brothers in constructing prototypes of practical heavier than air flying machines. Heavier than air flight by the ...


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There is a Wikipedia article on the subject of Pre-Columbian metallurgy. I would go farther than you in saying that ALL, not "most", new world indigenous cultures were based on non-metallic technology. It is true a few isolated cases of copper ornaments and such have been found, but in general, I know of no widespread use of metal tools or weapons anywhere ...


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Most of the rifles used in WWI were designed, adopted and procured 10-20 years prior during a period of great upheaval in military rifle technology. In the decades leading up to WWI there was a great change in ammunition which most lever designs could not accommodate. Militaries were rapidly adapting rounds with better ballistics in addition to larger and ...


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Underbarrel magazine have many shortcomings: displacement of the center of mass during shooting, placement rounds one after another makes rifle sensitive to shocks, feed mechanism is more complicated and less reliable, reloading this magazine is not so fast as box magazine (with en-bloc clip or stripper clip).


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Around 1671CE two turbine steam engined devices were presented by the Jesuit Friar Min-Ming Wo to for the Khang-Hsi emperor. Joseph Needham and Wang Ling. Mechanical Engineering. In Science and Civilisation in China Vol 4 (Physics and Physical Technology) Book 2. CUP 1965: p225ff.


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The book is very well regarded: it won a Pulitzer Price for non-fiction and figures in many lists of the more important books of the end of the 20th century. It's impossible to say how accurate it is regarding the truth of its main thesis: that the long-term and gross differences between societies in different continents and environments, come ultimately ...


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You may be thinking of the Ancient Discoveries series. The episode on the steam engine had a mention of China, but on a different topic. Steam engines, due to the heat and pressure of steam, require strong metal fittings which was technology not available anywhere in the far east until the 19th century. The rotating ball of Heron I would consider to be a ...


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Yes, sort of. Illiterate people could "sign" using hand prints, which is a reasonably reliable biometric (totally anecdotal, but my university's experience was <10% false identification) that's a bit easier to authenticate by the naked eye. Prints of the finger (more than just the tip) could also be authenticated based on feature such as lengths between ...


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An additional reason might be that infantry doctrine prior to and during most of WWI still considered the bayonet charge a valid tactic. Indeed giving the enemy a 'taste of cold steel' had an almost mythical effectiveness and was seen as the ultimate goal of the infantryman. As a result an infantry rifle had to be rugged enough to be used as a spear. A pump ...


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To quote from Field and Stream (1909): All sportsmen are familiar with the bolt action military rifle and the lever-action sporting rifle. Each has advantages over the other according to how and where it is to be used. The strength, durability and ease of repair of the military bolt type appeals lo the sportsman going out for big game in the ...



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