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From The World of Jewish Desserts by Gil Marks: "The earliest cakes consisted of fried patties of mashed legumes or grain flavored with honey. After yeast breads developed, bakers added honey and other enriching ingredients to create lighter, more versatile cakes. Middle eastern baking became further refined with the popularization of sugar, first grown in ...


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The Catholic Church, especially in the High Middle ages, was a great aid to science. The Church even founded the modern university system. Physicists of the High Middle ages had such a profound affect on the intellectual atmosphere of Galileo, Newton, et al. that they took their discoveries as common knowledge. Some of the most famous of the pre-Galilean ...


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Measuring, surveying, and map making are ancient practices by the Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Druids, Chinese... pretty much everyone knew how to trace and measure lines and angles over a long distance. Surveying is based on geometry, in particular triangles, and that was all well known at the time. By the time Hadrian's Wall was begun (122 AD), Euclid's ...


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The technology to determine the narrowest point in northern England is as nothing compared to that necessary for supplying Roman towns with running water and baths, as with the Nimes Aqueduct in Southern France, shown here at the Pont du Gard crossing of Gardon River. The Fontaine d'Eure, at 76 m (249 ft) above sea level, is only 17 m (56 ft) higher ...


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Let's start by making two assumptions: We're talking about the people who lived all throughout the Americas, from the far Arctic north to Tierra del Fuego in the far south. (Sometimes people use "Native American" to mean only the people who lived in what later became the US, but that's not a meaningful distinction before the US came to exist.) We're ...


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The Romans were good surveyors. Vitruvius described surveying tools and methods in a book that was used in the Middle Ages. By laying out stakes at fixed distances and using a plumb with simple sighting rods, it is very easy to lay out squares, lines, triangles, etc., and to measure the distances between different points. The Romans divided huge tracts of ...


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An enlisted Naval serviceman was paid anything from $80 to $213/month, depending on rank and service. I can't find a clear US record, but the Canadians had the lowest (non-training) telegraphist grade as an Able Seaman, and this seems to be at the E-3 level; so by analogy say $100/month. To make it directly comparable to civilian pay we need to account for ...



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