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Here's an excerpt from Kadin2048's answer to this question at ask.metafilter.com, making a reasonable summation if we consider the wire recording (Wiki) techniques that were known at the time: What I think is more likely, is that the tape was just colored in dark and light patches or stripes, and that it was decoded manually. As the tape went through the ...


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This looks like the printer for a receiver of high-speed code transmissions, probably marking the paper with electrical impulses. But this is only one component of a system, and might be as little as just the paper feeder.


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Another of the fore-runners was Clement Ader in France, who probably did achieve steam-powered flight before the Wrights - but only just. He also relayed operas in stereo before 1900.


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First of all, swords are made from steel and casting steel is an advanced technology not available in the 17th century. Swords and all other steel tools are forged, which means that the steel ingot is hammered into shape. The rapier was original to Toledo and at one time that city exported swords to all parts of Europe. Later, of course, their work was ...


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Since times immemorial, most all types of swords were made by forging rather than casting. Casting a sword is visually appealing, which is why you see that in the movies, but was not used in practice for multiple reasons, foremost of which were metallurgical concerns. Casting steel requires significantly higher temperatures than forging (~1400°C vs. ...


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I can add some comments to Tyler Durden's answer. Viking ships were not optimized for the open sea sailing performance. But they were good for rowing, travel near the shore and in the rivers. They were relatively long and narrow and had a shallow draft. As a result they could not carry much sail. The rudder was not invented yet, they used a steering paddle. ...


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How long it would take for a Viking raider group to get to their favourite destinations using a Viking warship? To go from Scandinavia to Ireland including various stops and diversions might be approximately 900 nautical miles. Good rowers can make about 60 nautical miles per day in ocean conditions. Assuming no stops are made it would therefore take ...


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There were several factors, the most basic of which was the relaxation of trade barriers. The ability to freely travel and communicate within the empire greatly boosted economic and intellectual exchanges. Inventors could suddenly get parts and materials from places that were formerly unknown or inaccessible. Printers and publishers could have customs-free ...


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This question is, I think, impossible to answer definitively because steel coming from a particular area will vary greatly in quality and be largely dependent on the care taken in making it, not the place or culture of its origin. In fact, the same steelmaker can turn out relatively low-quality or high-quality steel depending on how much effort he puts into ...



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