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18

The "Middle Ages" or medieval period generally refers to the entire time span between classical antiquity and the modern era in Western history. The Middle Ages lasted approximately AD 500 - 1500, from the fall of the (Western) Roman Empire to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the discovery and colonization of the New World. The Middle Ages are often ...


11

No one "coined" it; it is a romanization of the genitive form of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. The -i suffix is the usual way to transliterate it, just as we have Saudi, Kuwaiti, Omani, and so on. (The more common way in English to create a genitive for a thinker would be to use the Greek-derived -ic or the Latin-derived -an, hence you do see Wahhabic and ...


11

The phrase is a likely reference to the book, Don Quixote. Thomas Paine is familiar with the book and uses the imagery in the "Rights of Man" to attack Edmund Burke: In the rhapsody of his imagination, he has discovered a world of windmills, and his sorrows are, that there are no Quixotes to attack them.” Don Quixote follows the adventures of ...


10

Dr. Susan Snyder, my medieval and ancient history professor, argued that the term "Dark Age" was inappropriate for the early Middle Ages because we still have some records from it and some innovation took place. If we said "Dark Age" in class, we had to be referring to the Greek Dark Age, a period with some actual gaps in the historic record. We lose track ...


9

From a British perspective, America is not used exclusively as a synonym for the USA. I have several times encountered the conversation: "Where are you from" "America." "Oh cool. Which country." "The United States." Another example would be a recent BBC program I watched talking about geography in Iceland. The presenter was standing on the fault line ...


8

According to I Am America. (And So?), a New York Times article by Wyatt Mason (published in 2007), the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller was "misled by a document known as the Soderini Letter, a narrative account said to have been by Vespucci but believed by modern scholars to have been forged by unscrupulous publishers." The Soderini Letter ...


8

According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the name refers to its being between the Ancient Age and the Modern Age. It was a loan translation (calque) from Latin medium aevum, attested from the 1610s. The Latin term itself was first recorded in 1604, and an earlier variation was media tempestas (middle times, first appeared in 1469).


7

Postmodern This is a cultural rather than a historical science term. It refers to the contemporary line of reasoning which can be also called untra-relativism, i.e., not just that any statement's veracity is relative, but its meaning is relative as well. Modern et al I think this terminology went like this: Pre-modern: 1500-1800 Modern: 1800-WW2 ...


7

As an addendum to Choster's answer, Here is the English usage of "Wahhabi", according to Google's book data: (Click for larger image)


7

Note that "Dark Ages" is a therm with high ideological charge. Is the manichaean historical vision of the "enlightened" ilustrated from the XVIII century that oposses the Middle Ages (supposedly an age of barbarism) to the movement initiated by the french revolution, as if the Ilustrated Movementet had arisen by spontaneous generation.


7

There is a mounting body of evidence that the continent (originally the area of Newfoundland) is actually named after Richard Amerike, of Bristol. Amerike was very involved in arranging and aiding the voyages of John Cabot (Giovanni Cabotto) to the new world. In fact, he bore a great deal of the cost of these expeditions, hoping to gain new trade business ...


6

To expand on Razie Mah's answer, A Knight of the Post is, courtesy of The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary a professional false witness of 15th to 17th century England. In drawing a contrast between the romantic and chivalrous Kinghts of the Windmill, and the completely despicable professional liars and oath-breakers-for-hire termed Knights to the ...


5

I believe in the most general sense "America" means the continent of America which includes both North and South America. But what is colloquially referred to as "America" (mostly by "Americans") is widely regarded as just the United States of America. The colloquial usage excludes Puerto Rico (do you consider Puerto Rico America?) and our neighbour Canada ...


4

Definitions from Free Dictionary, Dictionary.com, and Oxford dictionary (subscriber only) should tell you the official definition. The Roman Republic and Byzantine Empire are different because of religion, geographical location, population, language and customs. Although the Byzantine did consider themselves the heirs of the Roman Empire. In the same ...


4

The best answer to your actual question I know of is Belgium. When the country was created, it was sort of a mishmash of different languages and cultures, which broke off from the Dutch because the rulers there couldn't stop themselves from trying to push their own religion and language on the inhabitants. Given that history, they really needed a neutral ...


4

USSR was mentioned in another answer as related to Poland, but USSR - and Russian Empire before 1917 - had a strong habit of doing this. As a random example: Kaliningrad was renamed from Königsberg after USSR annexed it from Germany following WW2 Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme ...


4

I think a complete reply here is impossible, because of the sheer number of such events in history. However, these events are more common after (I'd say) the French Revolution when the modern concept of "nation" was born. The best such example (I think) is that of Turkey and Greece. Both these countries where multicultural and multilanguage in the ...


4

Apples & oranges. I don't think there are official, or even conventional definitions for any of these terms; they vary depending on context. If you're talking to a paleontologist, the definition of the modern era will be very different from the defintions used by a historian specializing in "Democracy" or "women's rights", or whatever. "postmodern" ...


3

In dutch it's a lot easier: 1500-1800 is the nieuwe tijd, wich translates to new time, and 1800 to now is the hedendaagse periode, wich translates to contemporary period. I've never heard of a distinction for the period after world war II. I can maybe help you with the first question though: we define the start of the early modern period by events like the ...


3

After annexing Poland in 1939, Nazi Germany administration renamed some of Polish cities: Łódź was renamed to Litzmannstadt, Gdynia was renamed to Gotenhafen. After 1863 and January Uprising failure, Russian administration used name Kraj Privislansky (Vistula Territories) referring to territories of former Kingdom of Poland ( ...


3

Named differently from original inhabitants: America, Australia, New Zealand Changing names: Irish people & governments don't often use the term "British Isles" to include Ireland. The city of Derry/Londonderry in Northern Ireland is another example of name changes. However each tribe wants to call it by their name. Names are a complex issue, people ...


3

I saw one in Germany - can't remember which city. I had the impression that it was not uncommon. I've also heard this in connection with Cosa Nostra.


3

Latin Americans consider themselves "Americans," because South (and Central) America are part of the "American" continent. To distinguish themselves from people from the United States of America, Latins call the latter NORTH Americans. This could (but usually doesn't) refer to Canadians, who are generally referred to as "Canadians" by the Latins. ...


3

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Lollard means: "From M[iddle] [Dutch] lollaerd, lit. 'mumbler, mutterer', f[rom] lollen to mutter, mumble". This was a pejorative term to refer to a CLASS of people that held certain religious beliefs, as opposed to holders of the beliefs themselves. Specifically, it referred to "uneducated" Englishmen (in the ...


3

The name was derived from lollium, a tare, but was used in Flanders early in the fourteenth century to refer to one as a "hypocrite". Others took it to mean "idlers" and connected it with to loll. In the fourteenth century the word "lollard" was used to represent a number of terms. People who were identified as anti-clerical and wishing to disendow the ...


2

It was invented in the Renaissance- intellectuals seeking the ancient antiquity saw the ages between the fall of the Roman empire and the renewed interest in it as a long period of darkness and backwardness, the time that ''separated'' them from that culture and era they sought so much, hence the term Middle Ages. It derives from that period, and was kept in ...


2

To be honest, at first I was upset with your question. I mean, every child in Poland is taught that Christopher Columbus discovered America. How would it be possible if America would be precisely synonymous with United States, as it was written by you. Also my Brasilian friend Rodrigo, who stays at my place for few days, asked me to write it here that he ...


2

From a purely historical perspective, I believe the term "America" has generally been applied only to the "United States of America". I have seen instances where the collective countries of Mexico, US, and Canada have been referred to as "the Americas" (note the plural). However, I don't believe there has ever been an instance where the term "America" by ...


2

Hmmm. I find that "citation needed" to be a bit confusing. If it relates to the claim of prior invention, that is cited from La cifra del. Sig. Giovan Battista Bellaso right there, and David Kahn's book The Codebreakers later in the article. So the claim seems to be pretty well attributed to me. It almost looks like its saying they want a citation for the ...


1

I wouldn't be at all surprised if the term originates from the Tudor period of Henry the VIII whose emblem of the House of Tudor was the red rose. This excerpt from the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) does indeed point to it: under the rose: privately, in secret, in strict confidence; = sub rosa adv. Also in extended and allusive use. [The origin ...



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