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22

(1) "The Battle of France" - so called by the French. The the term "Battle of France is widely used for the WW2 fighting of the French against the German invasion. See e.g. Wikipedia Battle of France And the naming of it accordingly is attested to e.g. Winston Churchill: here ... What General Weygand has called The Battle of France is over. The ...


18

The "Middle Ages" or medieval period generally refers to the entire time span between classical antiquity and the modern era in Western history. The Middle Ages lasted approximately AD 500 - 1500, from the fall of the (Western) Roman Empire to the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the discovery and colonization of the New World. The Middle Ages are often ...


18

The Austro-Prussian War is currently known in Germany as "Deutscher Krieg", or "The German War" - though it was originally known as "Preußisch-Deutscher Krieg", or "Prussian-German War". Another contender are the Napoleonic Wars--or the Guerres napoléoniennes, as they are called in France.


13

The phrase is a likely reference to the book, Don Quixote. Thomas Paine is familiar with the book and uses the imagery in the "Rights of Man" to attack Edmund Burke: In the rhapsody of his imagination, he has discovered a world of windmills, and his sorrows are, that there are no Quixotes to attack them.” Don Quixote follows the adventures of ...


13

I can think of an example of this from the ancient period: The Lamian War(323–322 BC): was known to the ancient Greeks as the "Hellenic War". Obviously there were many wars in ancient Greece that we could call "Hellenic Wars" but this particular one was explicitly noted by Diodorus Siculus as such. Independent Greek states fought on both sides of this ...


12

No one "coined" it; it is a romanization of the genitive form of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. The -i suffix is the usual way to transliterate it, just as we have Saudi, Kuwaiti, Omani, and so on. (The more common way in English to create a genitive for a thinker would be to use the Greek-derived -ic or the Latin-derived -an, hence you do see Wahhabic and ...


12

One potential answer is "The People's Crusade." This certainly refers to the people fighting it (peasants instead of noblemen). I haven't found any primary source material for contemporaries calling it "The People's Crusade", but this source seems to suggest that it was called "The Popular Crusade" which is fairly close. As two sheds and Steve Jessop ...


11

Naming a war after the leader of our side (especially if he wants to be remembered for the victory, even anticipated) like in "Napoleonic Wars" as referenced by two sheds seems to be the most natural case of naming the war after one's side. In Clone Wars it's a different case: naming the war after a key or new weapon. I don't know about any war named like ...


10

From a British perspective, America is not used exclusively as a synonym for the USA. I have several times encountered the conversation: "Where are you from" "America." "Oh cool. Which country." "The United States." Another example would be a recent BBC program I watched talking about geography in Iceland. The presenter was standing on the fault line ...


10

Dr. Susan Snyder, my medieval and ancient history professor, argued that the term "Dark Age" was inappropriate for the early Middle Ages because we still have some records from it and some innovation took place. If we said "Dark Age" in class, we had to be referring to the Greek Dark Age, a period with some actual gaps in the historic record. We lose track ...


9

According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the name refers to its being between the Ancient Age and the Modern Age. It was a loan translation (calque) from Latin medium aevum, attested from the 1610s. The Latin term itself was first recorded in 1604, and an earlier variation was media tempestas (middle times, first appeared in 1469).


9

According to I Am America. (And So?), a New York Times article by Wyatt Mason (published in 2007), the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller was "misled by a document known as the Soderini Letter, a narrative account said to have been by Vespucci but believed by modern scholars to have been forged by unscrupulous publishers." The Soderini Letter ...


9

Postmodern This is a cultural rather than a historical science term. It refers to the contemporary line of reasoning which can be also called ultra-relativism, i.e., not just that any statement's veracity is relative, but its meaning is relative as well. Modern et al I think this terminology went like this: Pre-modern: 1500-1800 Modern: 1800-WW2 ...


8

As an addendum to Choster's answer, Here is the English usage of "Wahhabi", according to Google's book data: (Click for larger image)


7

There is a mounting body of evidence that the continent (originally the area of Newfoundland) is actually named after Richard Amerike, of Bristol. Amerike was very involved in arranging and aiding the voyages of John Cabot (Giovanni Cabotto) to the new world. In fact, he bore a great deal of the cost of these expeditions, hoping to gain new trade business ...


7

It is not only historians who decide. Usually, the "Allies" call such themselves. For example, you refer to World War I. Please remember, that on the very beginning there were two blocs: Triple Entente (France allied with Russia along with United Kingdom, which was not allied to anybody, except the Commonwealth), and Triple Alliance (Germany allied with ...


6

Note that "Dark Ages" is a therm with high ideological charge. Is the manichaean historical vision of the "enlightened" ilustrated from the XVIII century that oposses the Middle Ages (supposedly an age of barbarism) to the movement initiated by the french revolution, as if the Ilustrated Movementet had arisen by spontaneous generation.


6

I believe in the most general sense "America" means the continent of America which includes both North and South America. But what is colloquially referred to as "America" (mostly by "Americans") is widely regarded as just the United States of America. The colloquial usage excludes Puerto Rico (do you consider Puerto Rico America?) and our neighbour Canada ...


6

Apples & oranges. I don't think there are official, or even conventional definitions for any of these terms; they vary depending on context. If you're talking to a paleontologist, the definition of the modern era will be very different from the defintions used by a historian specializing in "Democracy" or "women's rights", or whatever. "postmodern" ...


6

To expand on Razie Mah's answer, A Knight of the Post is, courtesy of The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary a professional false witness of 15th to 17th century England. In drawing a contrast between the romantic and chivalrous Kinghts of the Windmill, and the completely despicable professional liars and oath-breakers-for-hire termed Knights to the ...


6

Hmm... Perhaps the War of the League of Augsburg / War of the Grand Alliance / Nine Years' War would count, at least with respect to the first two of those names. According to Wikipedia, The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, the Dutch Republic, England, the Holy Roman Empire, Ireland, ...


6

You have somewhat answered your own question. The Reeve and Bailiff were essentially the same job in Medieval England. The Reeve was a person that oversaw the land and crops and was in charge of the peasants. A reeve was basically an estate manager. A reeve is actually described in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, describing the reeve as a highly ...


5

In dutch it's a lot easier: 1500-1800 is the nieuwe tijd, wich translates to new time, and 1800 to now is the hedendaagse periode, wich translates to contemporary period. I've never heard of a distinction for the period after world war II. I can maybe help you with the first question though: we define the start of the early modern period by events like the ...


5

I think a complete reply here is impossible, because of the sheer number of such events in history. However, these events are more common after (I'd say) the French Revolution when the modern concept of "nation" was born. The best such example (I think) is that of Turkey and Greece. Both these countries where multicultural and multilanguage in the ...


5

One example that comes to my mind is the War of the Triple Alliance, perhaps more commonly known as the Paraguayan War, which was won by the said Triple Alliance (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay). EDIT – But to be honest, I don't actually know nor could I find out whether it was called like that while it was being fought; it's pretty probable that it was ...


4

After annexing Poland in 1939, Nazi Germany administration renamed some of Polish cities: Łódź was renamed to Litzmannstadt, Gdynia was renamed to Gotenhafen. After 1863 and January Uprising failure, Russian administration used name Kraj Privislansky (Vistula Territories) referring to territories of former Kingdom of Poland ( ...


4

The best answer to your actual question I know of is Belgium. When the country was created, it was sort of a mishmash of different languages and cultures, which broke off from the Dutch because the rulers there couldn't stop themselves from trying to push their own religion and language on the inhabitants. Given that history, they really needed a neutral ...


4

Named differently from original inhabitants: America, Australia, New Zealand Changing names: Irish people & governments don't often use the term "British Isles" to include Ireland. The city of Derry/Londonderry in Northern Ireland is another example of name changes. However each tribe wants to call it by their name. Names are a complex issue, people ...


4

USSR was mentioned in another answer as related to Poland, but USSR - and Russian Empire before 1917 - had a strong habit of doing this. As a random example: Kaliningrad was renamed from Königsberg after USSR annexed it from Germany following WW2 Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme ...


4

Latin Americans consider themselves "Americans," because South (and Central) America are part of the "American" continent. To distinguish themselves from people from the United States of America, Latins call the latter NORTH Americans. This could (but usually doesn't) refer to Canadians, who are generally referred to as "Canadians" by the Latins. ...



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