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16

Essentially the extra quarter of a day that the Julian leap year added was slightly longer than the 0.242 of a day left over in the actual solar year. It affected Pope Gregory XIII because the Christian holidays were being celebrated on the wrong days. This was noticed by the Pope's astronomers and prompted the need for change. What's the science behind ...


15

One example would be the Amondawa who are a group of indigenous peoples of Brazil. The Amondawa are a sedentary group that utilize various forms of hunting fishing and agriculture to provide for their community, yet according to researchers the Amondawa lack an "abstract concept of time." The University of Portsmouth and the Federal University of Rondonia ...


11

Some astronomical events, viz. eclipses, can be reliably predicted to the day. I think they are the best method to identify a date exactly. This webpage provides some insight on the topic. It is basically a list of recorded solar eclipses, where the first one would be on 22 March 2134 BCE. There is however some uncertainty about whether or not the event ...


7

Spain changed the time zone in 1940 from GMT to GMT+1, Franco thought that it would be a good idea to have same time than nazi Germany and fascist Italy (his political allies), after Germany occupied France. The United Kingdom modified the time zone too, but return back in 1945. In the 80s, the PSOE (political party at government) institutionalized the ...


7

Primarily for convenience of trade and communications across national borders. As the countries of Western Europe have become ever more closely linked, it makes life easier if people can agree on what time it is. The initial standardisation of times, in Great Britain at least, came with the railway - Bristol time was 11 minutes different to London, based on ...


7

there are 3 years, not two, that have co be coordinated. Stellar, Sun and Moon ones. Every old calendar, including that of Mayans, Egyptians and Sumerians, worked. The only diffeence is how did they corrected for the difference of the sun, the moon and the stellar years. The Sumerian and Egyptian and old Roman calendars were practical ones - they simply ...


7

1927 saw Shanghai change control from local warlords to the Kuomintang Nationalist Government, who then purged the Chinese Communist Party on April 12 and then declared Shanghai to be a municipality in the Republic of China. Presumably the time change to GMT+8 from a more local mean time was a combination of desire for modernity and to show that Shanghai ...


5

I'm actually deeply suspicious about the data used used on TimeAndDate for historical times, and I suspect things were a lot more messy on the ground in China in late 19th to mid-20th century, even with growth of telegraph etc. I did, however, poke around some postings in Chinese about Jon Skeet's Stack Overflow posting. One of the commenters here, wubotao, ...


5

Most common people had no great need to know the time to any meaningful precision. Those who needed the time either relied on the sun, or relied on the community's effort at time keeping (more on this later). Generally speaking, especially for people in remote regions, the sky was their clock. As you noted in your answer, they could glance up at the sky and ...


5

In general, dating was complicated, and different conventions existed simultaneously in England at that time. For the specific example of William the Conqueror's coronation, we have different sources within the following decades implying that it was in 1066 or 1067, anno Domini. The precision sought in the question did not exist, at least in the same form ...


4

Short and quick answer: definitely the Romans were NOT the first. Calendar of ancient Egyptians was solar, and Sumerian one - lunisolar, both of them fit your description, although the issue which of them is older is open, and in fact is a discussion of interpreting archeological materials. Hence it would be also impossible to provide any definitive, precise ...


4

After some reading about the early Roman Calendar, it is relevant to note that originally the calendar had only ten months and began on March, with an uncounted “winter” period after December. The number of days on each month were more or less flexible, and they usually tried to align the 15th of March, the mid of the month, with Ides, a full moon. At the ...


4

Possibly they wanted to match it to Brumalia. The Roman winter solstice festival. wikipedia: "The Brumalia was also celebrated during the space of thirty days, commencing on 24 November and ending with the "Waxing of the Light", December 25" citation Much the same can be said about Saturnalia, they're very similar. The "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun" is ...


2

According to this paper, in 2951 BC there was a massive volcanic eruption. I do not know whether even more ancient eruptions can be calculated.


2

One look at that chart you link to makes clear that the author is deficient in understanding Norse mythology: Woden (or Odin) is the Norse King of the Gods and thus equivalent to Jupiter/Zeus and not to Mercury/Hermes; Both Thor and Tyr/Tiw were Gods of War (Who guessed that the Norse were warlike), so identifying either one of them as equivalent to ...


2

According to Feeny, "Caesar's Calendar", p.196 (preview here), the concept of aligning with the celestial objects was not even present to Roman minds in Cicero's time. It would be interesting to know precisely where in Cicero and Ovid there are references to alignment.


2

Interestingly, when the time zones were established at the International Meridian Conference in 1884, the original idea was to have a single coordinated solar day. This meant that eventually, the hope was to have a single coordinated time throughout the world. The idea of dividing the world into time zones was merely supposed to be a step to getting to ...


1

Assuming that Swatch sells their plastic watches also in the U.S., there is their notion of Swatch Internet Time (beat time): The notion has not become popular in Europe or even Switzerland (where the company originates) so far, but insofar as this is a serious, globally acting company, their (marketing-driven) attempt can (perhaps) be counted as a ...


1

Nowhere in the USA does that, however there is one place in North America (sorta) that does: Newfoundland. They happened to be about 3 and a half hours from Greenwich when the time zones were first set up, and being persnickety people, opted to keep their own time rather than join the Atlantic or central Greenland time zones.



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