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This question is very vague, but I assume you are asking about the Middle Ages in Western Europe, though there is no reason why it should not be about Byzantium, Islam, India, China or any other mediaeval civilisation. But let us stick to Western Europe. In Western Christendom (and also in Byzantium) the universal system of time-keeping was the Julian ...


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For the most part, church and celestial events. In particular, midsummer and midwinter and the equinoxes were both easy to detect and were important events, at least in the colder climates of Europe. One problem with this approach was that the Julian calendar, which was used pretty much everywhere during the middle ages, by the 1500s had gotten seriously ...


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The villagers lived with a set of rights and obligations to their feudal overlords and the church. A dozen geese on Martini, three days of labor maintaining roads in the spring, regular church services, ... They'd have to track that, even if they didn't use the names of months and numbered days in the month.


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The ancient Hindus did not regularly use "days of the week" (although they are attested). The reason for this was that the Hindu calendar before 1100 AD used mean times (called madhyama) and this can shift days from one month to another. They did have a division into days assigned as one day to each planet as follows: Ravivara Somavara Mangalavara ...



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