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11

The Industrial Revolution resulted in massive gains for worker productivity. The textile industry in particular was a leading and early driver of the industrialisation process. In fact, the importance and impact of the British textile manufacture was such that the Industrial Revolution has been called "mainly the revolution of the cotton industry in Britain"....


9

Why should they? Destroying those supplies would require the commitment of forces Japan did not have to spare, with little to show for it. If a country Japan was at war with -- the USA -- insists on shipping war supplies to a country Japan was not at war with, why should Japan mind? Whether those supplies reached Russia or not did not make a difference ...


7

In addition to the points already raised by @TomAu and @DevSolar... The Pacific lend-lease route skirted the problem by officially being handled by the Soviets. Supervision and routing was handled by the Soviets. Cargo was loaded into Soviet flagged ships, many US ships were handed over to the Soviets. Since ships on the route might be inspected by the ...


7

Generally speaking, Christian ports were not closed to Muslim traders per se. While Muslim traders were relatively rare outside of Iberia in the Middle Ages, they were not unheard of either. For example, records of taxes on foreign shipping suggests the existence of Islamic traders from the Levant, North Africa, and Muslim Spain in the Christian ports of ...


6

Much of what you desire to know will be summed up by researching both the history of Marine Insurance, perhaps starting with the founding of Lloyd's Coffee House in about 1688; the history of the early trading companies such as Honourable East India Company (1600) ; United East Indian Company (aka Dutch East India Company) (1602) - ; and The Governor and ...


5

Before railways the most efficient mode of land transportation was by river - and the Ganges River system runs nearly three quarters of the way from the opium fields (in what is modern Pakistan and Afghanistan) to Calcutta. The only comparable port facility would likely have been Bombay (modern Mumbai), but without the advantage either of large scale river ...


5

Calcutta had two functions. One, it was an assembly point for opium gathered from other parts of India because many rivers flowed in that direction from near the opium fields as Pieter mentioned. Second, it was a port in the part of India (east) "nearest" to China and under British control. Third, as of 1772, Calcutta was the headquarters of the British ...


4

Japan had a five year non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union (which the Soviets broke in 1945 after four years). Attacking Russian shipping would have been an act of war, and Japan didn't really want or need a "third" enemy. Japan feared that the Americans would use Soviet territory to launch air strikes or "stage" an invasion if it provoked Russia ...


3

There is a nice short summary of pre-Columbian trade in the Amreicas by David Carballo. It looks like Cahokian trade was focused on the North American landmass and did not extend to Mesoamerica in a significant way. From the text: Following the adoption of Mexican maize as a primary domesticate, a Mississippian trading system began to flourish within ...


2

Lifting from this site, I found a "cheap sword (peasant's)", England ~1340, listed at 6 pence. The same site lists the daily wage of a thatcher (in the same time period) as 3 pence. The source is given as "Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages, Christopher Dyer, Cambridge University Press, 1989". Probably a good source to look into. This does not ...


2

Greville Wynne was an electrical engineer. His businesses, which became his cover, sold electrical equipment.


2

Just to follow up on Semaphore's comment. The price of silk was highly variable during Roman times and it was considered the ultimate luxury item. In both the Rhodian maritime laws and in accounts of the reign of Aurelian (270-275 AD) it is implied that silk was worth its weight in gold. So, for example, the silk in a garment weighing one pound might be 14 ...


2

One thing that's overlooked is that there was also a huge population growth during the industrial revolution. The population of england grew from 7 million to 30 million in a century. So even without selling the clothes overseas there was a lot more people buying clothes than there was before the industrial revolution. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


1

Country of origin requirements were not common law until 1891. (MADRID AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE INTERNATIONAL REGISTRATION OF MARKS) In 1890, the U.S. Congress passed protectionist tariff legislation - the McKinley Tariff. This legislation, in addition to imposing heavy tariffs on imports and provoking a major depression in the United States, also ...


1

Spices were what we would nowadays call mass luxuries. These are luxury goods that the masses can afford in small quantities. They are desired because they are out of the ordinary, and offer a "change of pace." They are expensive on a per-unit basis, but it is the "smallness" of use that makes them affordable. Spices had both these qualities at the time. So ...


1

I think the difference between Spanish and Portuguese empire were that the force of Portugal was in the navy while the Spanish was on the army. Spain hadnt a good navy until he was taking into account about the power of Portugal. The problem of portuguese army was seen when Portugal decided to invade Afrika after the prosperous conquest of America by Spain. ...



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