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11

The Industrial Revolution resulted in massive gains for worker productivity. The textile industry in particular was a leading and early driver of the industrialisation process. In fact, the importance and impact of the British textile manufacture was such that the Industrial Revolution has been called "mainly the revolution of the cotton industry in ...


9

Why should they? Destroying those supplies would require the commitment of forces Japan did not have to spare, with little to show for it. If a country Japan was at war with -- the USA -- insists on shipping war supplies to a country Japan was not at war with, why should Japan mind? Whether those supplies reached Russia or not did not make a difference ...


7

Generally speaking, Christian ports were not closed to Muslim traders per se. While Muslim traders were relatively rare outside of Iberia in the Middle Ages, they were not unheard of either. For example, records of taxes on foreign shipping suggests the existence of Islamic traders from the Levant, North Africa, and Muslim Spain in the Christian ports of ...


7

I would recommend a read through Janet Abu-Lughod's book, Before European Hegemony. This covers trade routes and practices in different areas of the world during the late 14th through early 16th centuries. The remainder of this answer is pulled in great part from what I understood of the book. Water ways are preferred due to a lower rate of banditry. While ...


6

In addition to the points already raised by @TomAu and @DevSolar... The Pacific lend-lease route skirted the problem by officially being handled by the Soviets. Supervision and routing was handled by the Soviets. Cargo was loaded into Soviet flagged ships, many US ships were handed over to the Soviets. Since ships on the route might be inspected by the ...


6

Much of what you desire to know will be summed up by researching both the history of Marine Insurance, perhaps starting with the founding of Lloyd's Coffee House in about 1688; the history of the early trading companies such as Honourable East India Company (1600) ; United East Indian Company (aka Dutch East India Company) (1602) - ; and The Governor and ...


5

Here is my main source for the following answers. EDIT 6/4/2015: I have expanded this answer to elaborate on a number of things. How much, in today terms, were they worth? Around the year 1500, a quintal of pepper in Lisbon was worth up to 38 ducats. A ducat was 3.5g of gold and a quintal was only 60 grams of pepper... So, pepper was worth a bit more ...


4

Japan had a five year non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union (which the Soviets broke in 1945 after four years). Attacking Russian shipping would have been an act of war, and Japan didn't really want or need a "third" enemy. Japan feared that the Americans would use Soviet territory to launch air strikes or "stage" an invasion if it provoked Russia ...


3

Wrong assumption. Ming trading with SEA continued during the 14-16th century, trading Ming porcelain and other goods for spices, teak, ivory and turtle shell, with archaelogical finds in Malacca and Singapore. Indeed, the wukou pirates were also large Chinese merchant fleets which rebelled against the trade ban of 1540, which was started against the the ...


3

There is a nice short summary of pre-Columbian trade in the Amreicas by David Carballo. It looks like Cahokian trade was focused on the North American landmass and did not extend to Mesoamerica in a significant way. From the text: Following the adoption of Mexican maize as a primary domesticate, a Mississippian trading system began to flourish within ...


2

Lifting from this site, I found a "cheap sword (peasant's)", England ~1340, listed at 6 pence. The same site lists the daily wage of a thatcher (in the same time period) as 3 pence. The source is given as "Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages, Christopher Dyer, Cambridge University Press, 1989". Probably a good source to look into. This does not ...


2

Greville Wynne was an electrical engineer. His businesses, which became his cover, sold electrical equipment.


2

One thing that's overlooked is that there was also a huge population growth during the industrial revolution. The population of england grew from 7 million to 30 million in a century. So even without selling the clothes overseas there was a lot more people buying clothes than there was before the industrial revolution. See: ...


1

The Manila Galleon might be a contender if you add the overland and transatlantic parts of the trip. Manila to Acapulco or Panama, Panama to Havana, Havana to Seville. Do you count the round trip, if each leg waits for once-a-year seasonal winds?



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