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12

It's not a full answer, but if you're interested by medieval Arabic travels, the unavoidable reference is Ibn Baṭūṭah. In his Rihla, he describes three travels he made during the 14th century : from Tangiers to middle-East, with a travel along the East coast of Africa, down to Zanbar and Kilwa. (map here) from Mecca to Beijing, and back, through Eastern ...


9

I'm not into proscribing a lot of collective guilt onto modern peoples for acts of their cultural ancestors. In fact, its damn silly. However, if someone else is trying to do this publicly, they should be really careful, because when it comes to slavery almost no culture on earth has clean hands. This includes Muslim society, and local Negro1 cultures. ...


7

Te VOC was not interested in control of people or land, but trade. For example nutmeg; the dutch burned every bit of it except on an island of 1 square km so they could control all of it. IIRC the value would go from 1 in Indonesia to 50000 in Amsterdam. The VOC was the single most profitable company in history (according to my prof.). A journey would take a ...


7

The exact technique these caravans used to navigate the desert appears to an issue of some contention in the scholarly community. Solid historical evidence seems to be lacking, since these cultures orally passed down this navigation knowledge for the most part. Anthropologists and other scholars have made analyses of modern Saharan navigators, but the ...


6

To fill out JK's answer: the VOC directly controlled very little except the shipping routes to Amsterdam (and a few other Dutch ports, but the majority of goods arrived at Amsterdam). Indirectly, through deals and influence at the local courts of the rulers of the islands, they controlled far more. By supplying those rulers with weapons, advisors, European ...


6

Usually islamic banks give loans for a share in the income of the business project as opposed to fixed percent of the loan sum (see mudarabah) The consumer loans may utilize another scheme: the bank buys, for example, a car and it becomes the bank's property, then you use this car and slowly re-buy it from the bank for greater money. Once you finished, the ...


6

The practice known as psychological pricing, or odd pricing, was invented in the United States in the 19th century. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychological_pricing Ironically, the original rationale was not to make prices appear lower, but rather to guarantee that customers would receive at least a penny (worth something at the time), in change. One ...


5

After the voyages of Columbus, who sailed for Spain, the Portuguese and Spanish divided up the new world in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). The later pattern of colonization followed this treaty in general outline. Your question has an incorrect assumption, that the Portuguese were only traders. They had a global empire that included Brazil, islands in ...


4

Perhaps the biggest challenge in answering this question is the difficulty in generalizing across space, across various kinds of nomadic groups, and indeed, across individual nomadic groups. Also, much of what can be said depends on what we know about nomadic groups in recent history and make assumptions about ancient groups. I think someone with good ...


4

The answer appears to be "yes" in both cases: Tariffs in United States history: In the colonial era, before 1775, nearly every colony levied its own tariffs, usually with lower rates for British products. There were taxes on ships (on a tonnage basis), import taxes on slaves, export taxes on tobacco, and import taxes on alcoholic beverages. The ...


4

Yes, there is at least one example below. As of June 21, 2011, the US had partial trade embargoes, issued by the CDC, on the import of birds from the following countries due to the H5N1 virus (bird flu): East Asia and the Pacific: Myanmar Cambodia China Hong Kong Indonesia Japan Laos Malaysia South Korea Thailand Vietnam South Asia: Afghanistan ...


3

As surprising as this may seem, there is some truth in these allegations, but of course this does not change in any way their antisemitic character. Why there is some truth The French Triangular Trade was conducted primarily from the harbor of Nantes, from where departed almost as many slave-carrying ships as from all the other French harbors combined. ...


3

Sad to say, probably not. Let's look at the reported itenerary of these words: Rice: via Old French ris and Italian riso from Latin oriza, which is from Greek ὄρυζα oryza, through an Indo-Iranian tongue finally from Sanskrit व्रीहिस् vrihi-s "rice", derived from proto-Dravidian. So this word was first imported to Sanskrit (an Indo-Euorpean language ...


3

It turns out that if you hunt hard enough, there is a fragment of a wikipedia page that covers this. First off, what was found was traces of coca and nicotine in hair from Egyptian mummies by one person. Nobody has ever duplicated the coca find (after multiple attempts), but some other folks have found traces of nicotine in some other mummies. Its worth ...


3

Debt between sovereign states (or separate currency unions) is a peculiar creature. We can take for example a late 1970s year in which Japan was pouring econo-cars into the US market, US car companies were in deep trouble, and it seemed like every VCR, TV, and eggbeater had a Japanese name on it. Due to the habit of Japanese not to buy foreign goods if they ...


2

While metallurgic ease, geographic access and hoarding habits would influence the amount of effective metal circulating in human society; the fundamental likelihood of the element in the Earth's crust is also informative: Silver is approximately 64 times more abundant than Gold. A society that had less silver than gold was either unlucky in geographic ...


2

These situations were totally common throughout history. Starting from the industrial revolution in Britain which led to numerous concerns in France about their textile industry. I can tell you many other examples. The pre-revolutionary Russian Empire where German industry was seen to dominate over domestic industry. The Cold War era Soviet Union where it ...


1

Boeing vs Airbus BAE vs Lockheed Martin Smoot Hawley Fordney-Mccumber - which explicitly aimed to protect US factories. You may also wish to check tariffs on Italian leather shoes - I don't have anything immediately to hand, but the US has traditionally levied tariffs on Italian shoes to protect domestic industry. I believe that Steel was protected in the ...


1

Spain and Portugal controlled their colonies differently because they developed differently during the 15th century. By the 15th century, Portugal was already a "complete" country. The century was characterized by seagoing voyages under Prince Henry the Navigator, around the coast of Africa. The end result was Vasco da Gama's sailing totally around Africa, ...


1

No, there are no instances of "Country X does not meet health standards" leading the United States to stop trade with that country. There are however plenty of cases when the United States (and also other countries) have stopped imports of particular products from particular because of health concerns. Countries where there are outbreak of "mad cow disease" ...


1

There are much sand in Sahara, that's true. But the sand deserts are mixed with stone or clay ones. And these last are everywhere in Sahara. (BTW, the sand deserts are the least dangerous - there are always some water somewhere under the sand.) So, it is enough to choose ways so that you'll visit periodically these stable parts of Sahara. Or at least see ...



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