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11

The Industrial Revolution resulted in massive gains for worker productivity. The textile industry in particular was a leading and early driver of the industrialisation process. In fact, the importance and impact of the British textile manufacture was such that the Industrial Revolution has been called "mainly the revolution of the cotton industry in ...


7

I would recommend a read through Janet Abu-Lughod's book, Before European Hegemony. This covers trade routes and practices in different areas of the world during the late 14th through early 16th centuries. The remainder of this answer is pulled in great part from what I understood of the book. Water ways are preferred due to a lower rate of banditry. While ...


7

Generally speaking, Christian ports were not closed to Muslim traders per se. While Muslim traders were relatively rare outside of Iberia in the Middle Ages, they were not unheard of either. For example, records of taxes on foreign shipping suggests the existence of Islamic traders from the Levant, North Africa, and Muslim Spain in the Christian ports of ...


6

Much of what you desire to know will be summed up by researching both the history of Marine Insurance, perhaps starting with the founding of Lloyd's Coffee House in about 1688; the history of the early trading companies such as Honourable East India Company (1600) ; United East Indian Company (aka Dutch East India Company) (1602) - ; and The Governor and ...


4

Here is my main source for the following answers. EDIT 6/4/2015: I have expanded this answer to elaborate on a number of things. How much, in today terms, were they worth? Around the year 1500, a quintal of pepper in Lisbon was worth up to 38 ducats. A ducat was 3.5g of gold and a quintal was only 60 grams of pepper... So, pepper was worth a bit more ...


3

There is a nice short summary of pre-Columbian trade in the Amreicas by David Carballo. It looks like Cahokian trade was focused on the North American landmass and did not extend to Mesoamerica in a significant way. From the text: Following the adoption of Mexican maize as a primary domesticate, a Mississippian trading system began to flourish within ...


3

Wrong assumption. Ming trading with SEA continued during the 14-16th century, trading Ming porcelain and other goods for spices, teak, ivory and turtle shell, with archaelogical finds in Malacca and Singapore. Indeed, the wukou pirates were also large Chinese merchant fleets which rebelled against the trade ban of 1540, which was started against the the ...


3

There is also Sugar Cane, which grows well in tropical wet areas. Assuming you don't count Mexico, Central America is primarily tropical jungle (with a bit of wet highland areas, good for growing coffee). Not many people ventured into the jungle interior. Even today with modern tools and methods, efforts to exploit the resources in jungle areas tend to ...


2

First of all, peasants were not slaves or anything like that. They were essentially renting a given lend, and most often than not they came into this relationship volunteerly as free men. In many if not most lands and eras getting free from this relationship was actually possible, and peasants could move to another landlord. After bigger wars or diseases ...


2

Just to follow up on Semaphore's comment. The price of silk was highly variable during Roman times and it was considered the ultimate luxury item. In both the Rhodian maritime laws and in accounts of the reign of Aurelian (270-275 AD) it is implied that silk was worth its weight in gold. So, for example, the silk in a garment weighing one pound might be 14 ...


2

One thing that's overlooked is that there was also a huge population growth during the industrial revolution. The population of england grew from 7 million to 30 million in a century. So even without selling the clothes overseas there was a lot more people buying clothes than there was before the industrial revolution. See: ...


1

The Manila Galleon might be a contender if you add the overland and transatlantic parts of the trip. Manila to Acapulco or Panama, Panama to Havana, Havana to Seville. Do you count the round trip, if each leg waits for once-a-year seasonal winds?



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