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14

Several memoirs of the period suggest that the Berlin to Vienna journey very likely could be completed in 12 days or less. This matches up fairly closely to @Eugene's estimate of two weeks. However, one account suggests that someone with more limited resources and unexpected delays could easily take much more time. The route they [1,2,3,4] usually seem to ...


14

Straight-line distance from Berlin to Vienna is 523 kilometers or 325 miles according to Wolfram Alpha. In a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour (ca. 88 km/h), total travel time would be 5 hours and 55 minutes. However, roads are not perfectly straight. According to Google Maps the shortest route is 678 km long and you would need at least ...


10

Using ORBIS which reconstructs travel through the Roman Empire circa 200CE as a basis, a fast carriage across ~700kms (I chose Naples to Verona) would have taken about 10 days. A horse relay team between the same cities only took 3.6 days to cover 763 kms. One could use these numbers as a rule of thumb for all pre-industrial travel on decent roads. That ...


9

Yes, your suspicion is correct. Once man had boats (no later than 40,000 years ago) and the ability to live in the arctic, the island chains strung across the Bering Straight could not have been a significant barrier. There are native peoples who traverse it regularly today using native methods. As for evidence, archeologically we know about the Thule ...


8

According to this article in Hinduism Today, samudrayana (ocean voyage) is forbidden in the Shastras, but it may not be binding on current followers -- instead they may go through ritual purification after travel. The relevant passage is below: The Baudhayana Sutra, one of the Hindu Dharma Shastras, says that "making voyages by sea" (II.1.2.2) is an ...


6

I recently read a book, Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture that purports to challenge the foot traffic in two ways - first that ancient peoples were far more handy on boats than current thought, so a foot path isn't needed for them to spread, and second that evidence for passage from the Bering area is fairly thin in the period where ...


5

I think this is a valid question. But the answer is a rather resounding no. For one thing, we have no shred of evidence for such a conjecture. For another, this conjecture cannot be squared at all with the fact that Columbus to his dying day insisted on having actually landed in India - had he been dissimulating about his knowledge of the existence of ...


5

There is during the Han Dynasty a record of Gan Ying's travel to Europe. This is recorded in the Hou Han Shu. In the ninth year 97 CE, Ban Chao sent his Subordinate Gan Ying, who probed as far as the Western Sea, which is either the Persian Gulf or the Black Sea and then returned. Former generations never reached these regions. The Shanjing gives ...


4

First thing coming to mind: peasant's situation in Poland-Lithuania and Russian Tsardom. They could not leave their land without master's permission.


4

Norway had emigration restrictions in the nineteenth century; they were lifted in 1860. From http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/utstilling/norge.htm (a page hosted by the Norwegian National Archives; the translation from Norwegian is mine:) In some cases one wanted to keep persons from leaving the country, and the police had registries of these. The picture ...


4

The "Propaganda de Portugal Society" probably refers to the "Touring Club de Portugal", previously known as "Sociedade de Propaganda de Portugal". It's foundation date is 28/02/1906. That's probably why they date the poster as post-1906. The only thing I can guarantee is that it can't be from before, not in that form. Maybe the society recycled some other, ...


3

Things I'm noticing: Mostly steam ships are depicted. The big one in the foreground also has masts for sails. The first such hybrid ocean liner was the SS Great Western, in service from 1838 to 1856. The last such ocean liner to be built was perhaps the SS La Touraine which was in service from 1890 to the 1920s. The two-mast depiction there looks much more ...


3

Sakoku was a set of Japanese policies that included the restriction that no Japanese could travel outside the country; these policies were effectively terminated in 1853. Wikipedia has a number of examples of emigration restrictions including A 17th century Chinese restriction on emigration. Some countries restrict the ability of women to travel abroad ...


2

The Christian (Nestorian) prelate Rabban Sauma, a native of Khan Baliq (modern Beijing), travelled to Italy and France in 1287-8 as a personal ambassador of the Great Khan Arghun to the Pope. His account of his travels is included in the biography of his pupil, the Patriarch Mar Yahbalaha. There is an English translation of the book in “The monks of Kublai ...


2

Let's consider a well documented journey by Napoleon in 1809, a mere 40 years later. The basic technologies are all the same, though the network of metalled roads has been steadily expanding through that time. Napoleon was in a hurry, had the resources of an Empire at his command, and travelled similarly to how a diplomat might have travelled in the ...


2

The term in Sanskrit "Sagara Ullanghana" or "Samudra Ullanghana" is the term mainly used to prohibit upper caste i.e. Brahmins who have learnt Vedas and do daily 'Pujas' and 'Sandhyavandanam' from crossing the sea or ocean. This article Hindus and Ocean Taboo gives the complete picture of it and also what a Brahmin says about "making voyages by sea". ...


2

I seem to recall emigration restrictions on Frenchmen being one of the reasons for the small population of French colonies in North America compared with the English colonies, but I'm afraid I can't place the origin of that. Equally in the early days of a united Spain, Aragonese were forbidden to trade or settle in the American colonies, as these were ...


2

And even for no serfs in pre-1917 russia there was a tough [internal passport system] with few freedoms to travel or reside internally. The Confederate States of America also had internal passports: example Back to your question, you will be interested in this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_movement#Europe


1

The nobility was the estate of warriors, "those who fight". This tradition hadn't vanished at that time yet. These grand touring nobles knew how to fight, had companions who knew how to fight, and they were escorted by bodyguards who REALLY knew how to fight. The grand tours were regarded as part of the military education of French young nobles around the ...


1

Not a lot of information on the dangers of the Grand Tour. I did find this: A Tourist would not carry much money due to the risk of highway robbers so letters of credit from their London banks were presented at the major cities of the Grand Tour. Many Tourists spent a great deal of money abroad and due to these expenditures outside of England, ...



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