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33

The answers to 1, 2 are very simple. The Soviet Union presented itself as a "communist paradise." That is, a country where life was better than in capitalist countries. This was the main justification for communist power and social order. People traveling abroad could immediately see that this was not the case. When this had become evident to a sufficient ...


16

Several memoirs of the period suggest that the Berlin to Vienna journey very likely could be completed in 12 days or less. This matches up fairly closely to @Eugene's estimate of two weeks. However, one account suggests that someone with more limited resources and unexpected delays could easily take much more time. The route they [1,2,3,4] usually seem to ...


16

Straight-line distance from Berlin to Vienna is 523 kilometers or 325 miles according to Wolfram Alpha. In a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour (ca. 88 km/h), total travel time would be 5 hours and 55 minutes. However, roads are not perfectly straight. According to Google Maps the shortest route is 678 km long and you would need at least ...


16

It took between 7 and 10 days, depending on the ship and the weather. The ships sailed out of Liverpool and Queenstown. Here is a notice from "London and Its Environs: Handbook for Travellers" (1889):


13

Short answer: no. In general, nobody got "rides" in the ancient world because there were no rides, everybody walked for the most part. Carts were only used to carry cargo, not passengers. You would not want to try to ride in a cart because they had no suspension. Try this: get in a wheelbarrow with a wooden (or iron) wheel (not a pneumatic wheel) and have a ...


11

As answered in comments, the authorities were afraid of their populations defecting en masse (as indeed happened when the borders were thrown open in the GDR and Hungary in the early 1990s, so their fears weren't unfounded) Yes, to a degree. Travel wasn't as easy by far as it was in the west, but it was possible. Yes, some. But those were mostly related to ...


11

The percentage of Americans traveling overseas doubled between 1860 and 1900, but overseas tourism was still very rare at the end of the century (only .16% of the population per annum). Americans in 2009 were around 10 times as likely to visit Europe as were Americans in 1900. The Historical Statistics of the United States records how many Americans were ...


10

According to this article in Hinduism Today (July/August/September 2008), samudrayana (ocean voyage) is forbidden in the Shastras, but it may not be binding on current followers -- instead they may go through ritual purification after travel. The relevant passage is below: The Baudhayana Sutra, one of the Hindu Dharma Shastras, says that "making ...


10

Yes, your suspicion is correct. Once man had boats (no later than 40,000 years ago) and the ability to live in the arctic, the island chains strung across the Bering Straight could not have been a significant barrier. There are native peoples who traverse it regularly today using native methods. As for evidence, archeologically we know about the Thule ...


10

Using ORBIS which reconstructs travel through the Roman Empire circa 200CE as a basis, a fast carriage across ~700kms (I chose Naples to Verona) would have taken about 10 days. A horse relay team between the same cities only took 3.6 days to cover 763 kms. One could use these numbers as a rule of thumb for all pre-industrial travel on decent roads. That ...


9

It turns out there was an unofficial award for doing this particular trip the quickest in a passenger liner, so we have pretty good records. Of course a typical passage would be a bit slower than one where a captain was pushing to win the record, but the times can be seen as a close lower bound to how long it would take for a typical trip. In the 1890's the ...


7

This is not directly answering your question, but you might consider the German partition during the Cold War. This is illustrative because the Germans initially had open borders. The GDR (East Germany) suffered a massive population and brain drain in the 50s and early 60s, with 3.5 million East Germans coming to the FRG (West Germany). The Communist ...


6

I recently read a book, Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture that purports to challenge the foot traffic in two ways - first that ancient peoples were far more handy on boats than current thought, so a foot path isn't needed for them to spread, and second that evidence for passage from the Bering area is fairly thin in the period where ...


6

I would recommend a read through Janet Abu-Lughod's book, Before European Hegemony. This covers trade routes and practices in different areas of the world during the late 14th through early 16th centuries. The remainder of this answer is pulled in great part from what I understood of the book. Water ways are preferred due to a lower rate of banditry. While ...


5

I can add some comments to Tyler Durden's answer. Viking ships were not optimized for the open sea sailing performance. But they were good for rowing, travel near the shore and in the rivers. They were relatively long and narrow and had a shallow draft. As a result they could not carry much sail. The rudder was not invented yet, they used a steering paddle. ...


5

I think this is a valid question. But the answer is a rather resounding no. For one thing, we have no shred of evidence for such a conjecture. For another, this conjecture cannot be squared at all with the fact that Columbus to his dying day insisted on having actually landed in India - had he been dissimulating about his knowledge of the existence of ...


4

Norway had emigration restrictions in the nineteenth century; they were lifted in 1860. From http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/utstilling/norge.htm (a page hosted by the Norwegian National Archives; the translation from Norwegian is mine:) In some cases one wanted to keep persons from leaving the country, and the police had registries of these. The picture ...


4

The "Propaganda de Portugal Society" probably refers to the "Touring Club de Portugal", previously known as "Sociedade de Propaganda de Portugal". It's foundation date is 28/02/1906. That's probably why they date the poster as post-1906. The only thing I can guarantee is that it can't be from before, not in that form. Maybe the society recycled some other, ...


4

First thing coming to mind: peasant's situation in Poland-Lithuania and Russian Tsardom. They could not leave their land without master's permission.


3

Regarding question 2, it should be noted that before a voyage to another country a Soviet citizen had to undergo a scrutiny by local Party organs, ostensibly to ensure his or her strict moral values. Some KGB checks were surely performed as well, but those were hidden. Questions by Party (Komsomol for younger people, I guess) were, on the contrary, open, and ...


3

How long it would take for a Viking raider group to get to their favourite destinations using a Viking warship? To go from Scandinavia to Ireland including various stops and diversions might be approximately 900 nautical miles. Good rowers can make about 60 nautical miles per day in ocean conditions. Assuming no stops are made it would therefore take ...


3

The main point is the difference between political and economical border. While political border didn't imply the economical border, there were usually no serious crossings in old times. On the other hand, any economical borders inside the political bodies immediately created the crossings with guards, checking and so on. At the first moment when a crossing ...


3

What period? What place? A soldier for whom? Attacked by whom? Going where? If this guy is a Gaul ambushed by political enemies of his family in the time of Julius Caesar, near his home, it's a different story than a Legionnaire in North Africa during the Punic War. Starting w/road regs differ. First, there were different classes of roads. The ones you ...


3

The term in Sanskrit "Sagara Ullanghana" or "Samudra Ullanghana" is the term mainly used to prohibit upper caste i.e. Brahmins who have learnt Vedas and do daily 'Pujas' and 'Sandhyavandanam' from crossing the sea or ocean. This article Hindus and Ocean Taboo gives the complete picture of it and also what a Brahmin says about "making voyages by sea". ...


3

Things I'm noticing: Mostly steam ships are depicted. The big one in the foreground also has masts for sails. The first such hybrid ocean liner was the SS Great Western, in service from 1838 to 1856. The last such ocean liner to be built was perhaps the SS La Touraine which was in service from 1890 to the 1920s. The two-mast depiction there looks much more ...


3

Sakoku was a set of Japanese policies that included the restriction that no Japanese could travel outside the country; these policies were effectively terminated in 1853. Wikipedia has a number of examples of emigration restrictions including A 17th century Chinese restriction on emigration. Some countries restrict the ability of women to travel abroad ...


2

I seem to recall emigration restrictions on Frenchmen being one of the reasons for the small population of French colonies in North America compared with the English colonies, but I'm afraid I can't place the origin of that. Equally in the early days of a united Spain, Aragonese were forbidden to trade or settle in the American colonies, as these were ...


2

And even for no serfs in pre-1917 russia there was a tough [internal passport system] with few freedoms to travel or reside internally. The Confederate States of America also had internal passports: example Back to your question, you will be interested in this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_movement#Europe


2

Let's consider a well documented journey by Napoleon in 1809, a mere 40 years later. The basic technologies are all the same, though the network of metalled roads has been steadily expanding through that time. Napoleon was in a hurry, had the resources of an Empire at his command, and travelled similarly to how a diplomat might have travelled in the ...


1

While this is unlikely to be the average, it should provide a relatively accurate impression of the kind of stores carried by and 18th Century ship. The Victualing Board of the Royal Navy allowed the following provisions for every person serving on one of His Majesty's Ships (per week): 7 Pounds Bisket 7 Gallons of Beer/Measures of Wine 4 Pounds Beef 2 ...



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