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29

The nature of the silk road meant that it had to pass through commercial centres. "The Silk Road was largely fragmented and very few merchants travelled the whole route. Goods were passed from one merchant to another until it reached the final buyers" source So deviation over the steppes wasn't really possible as it was not the intermediaries goal to ...


16

The relationship between Ataturk and Lenin created a minor controversy in Turkey in 2008, when the Atatürk Thought Association used a banner showing them side by side: A public prosecutor's office in İstanbul has reportedly launched a probe into the Atatürkist Thought Association (ADD) over its use of a banner showing Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder ...


16

Please note that Abdülhamid II was long gone when World War I broke out. You might blame him for the 1895-6 massacres or the 1909 Adana massacre, but he wasn't responsible for what happened during the World War. It wasn't even the ruling Sultan, but rather the nationalist Young Turks who orchestrated Ottoman involvement in the war and organised the cleansing ...


16

During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal commanded two army corps: One in Ankara and one in Erzurum. At first Erzurum was Kemal's base of operations, but on 27 December, 1919 he moved his Representative Committee to Ankara to be closer to Istanbul. Ankara also had a railway and being roughly at the center of Turkey made more sense ...


15

First of all, France's goal is not to "undermine its relationship with Turkey" as you have implied. Instead, this is a product of France's policy of recognising what happened during WWI as a genocide. I believe the most important part of your question is why has France been the most assertive when it comes to recognition of the Armenian genocide. This comes ...


14

Turkey, like Spain and Sweden, was a country that "served the purpose" for Germany during World War II without being attacked. Specifically, Turkey was a major supplier of chrome, a key war material, both in her own right, and through "transshipments" from modern Rhodesia and South Africa. A hostile Turkey might not have been as good a supplier of such ...


14

Massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire goes back to at least 1894, but they increased during WWI. What is referred to as the Armenian Genocide is however sometimes limited to the events that happened during the mass deportation of Armenians in 1915-1916. The deportations ended in March 1916, and this ended the main part of the Armenian genocide, but ...


13

Just take a look at any political map, let it be Classical period, or early Medieval times. When travelling to China you need water, supplies of food, fodder, etc. Also it's safer to spend a night in a city or some kind of inn instead of open steppe spaces. Then what Joe mentioned, between the cities you've got roads, which again - are safer. South of Black ...


9

After the war between Greece and Turkey in the aftermath of WW I the two countries agreed on an exchange of minorities. But the question of who was “Greek” and who was “Turkish” was decided entirely on the basis of religion (and not language etc.). This means the ethnic Greek (Greek-speaking) converts to Islam were classified as Turks and deported to Turkey. ...


8

The Silk Way was not a single road, but rather a net of roads. And the ways Amudarja/Uzboj (Amudarja went to Caspian Sea till 16 Century, for example) - Caspian Sea - Volga - Don - Azov sea - Black sea - Konstantinople (variant: Aral-Caspian Sea by foot) was in use -especially for long periods when Amudarja was switched to the Caspian Sea and some stable ...


7

As with the case of France, Turkey's objective is not to have worse relations with Israel. Instead the worsening of relations between Turkey and Israel is a product of internal issues on both sides. Turkey and Israel do have a long history of military cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, Turkey has bought military equipment from Israel (tanks and ...


6

When Turks arrived in what is modern-day Turkey, they were already Muslims. The Battle of Malazgirt/Manzikirt between the ancestors of modern Turks and the Byzantine Empire marks the start of this large-scale migration by Turkic tribes. The various groups who constituted the migration were not homogeneous: there were Karakoyunlu, Akkoyunlu, Turkmen and so ...


6

in the current historical view has the onset of agriculture stimulate permanent settlements, and food surplus and storage allow the onset of specialized "careers" (including priests) This is incorrect. Permanent settlements and specialized societies require large food surpluses. This is generally produced by agriculture, but can also (in rare cases) be ...


6

Peter greatly underestimated the size and speed of the Ottoman army, overestimated his chances to peel away Ottoman vassals as allies, allowed his supply lines to be disrupted, and misread the terrain and Ottoman maneuvers, bogging his forces down in a marsh. This should have been the end of Peter the Great, but his reputation and the timidity of the ...


5

Reaching the Middle eastern Oilfields which are on the Persian Gulf is a lot harder than it looks, and getting the Oil back even harder. The railways don't go all the way and the Turkish railways were pretty low volume. Shipping just forget that the Axis dint have the tankers and RN would just sink them (too many bases not enough escorts). To rail the Oil ...


5

The 11th ed. of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (published in 1911) provides a specific answer as to when. The why can perhaps be inferred from its somewhat anti-Turkish language (tortuous, mean) and the historical events around independence in 1879. Since 1880 the city has been almost entirely renovated in the "European" style; the narrow tortuous lanes ...


5

My family came from Western Ukraine and my grandfather attended University in Chernotsy and Vienna. He said that historically our family were merchants on a branch of the Silk Road that ran through Ukraine. Ukraine was a bulwark in the hundreds of years of warfare between Europe and Turkey and it is absurd to think that a substantial amount of trade did ...


4

One of the theories of how agriculture was invented (the most popular today, at least among archaeologists) say that the people of natufian culture grew to too big numbers during a period of good climate (younger dryas; Anubhav already explained that it's possible to get such food surplus by hunting with plenty of game) and they needed to survive while the ...


4

First of all, the name of the Muslim-Turkish state that defeated Byzantine army in the 11th century at Manzikert was Great Seljuk Empire. As its name mentioned, though a relatively short lived one, it was indeed a great empire that extends from Central Asia to Egypt. Their Sultans, most governors and a significant part of their population were Oghuz Turks, ...


4

Hitler wasn't interested in Turkey in itself, but let's analyse this option as a means to an end. Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia. Turkey did not offer this, it's a difficult country to move around with poor (at the time) ...


3

According to Arnold Toynbee at least 50 percent [500,000 - 700,000] would be casualty of the deportations.[7] Wikipedia, which references Arnold Toynbee, "A Summary of Armenian History up to and Including the Year 1915," in Viscount Bryce, preface, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915-16: Documents presented to Viscount Grey of ...


3

Originally the mosaics probably survived, Fergusson writing: The frescoes and mosaics have, indeed disappeared from the body of the church, hidden, it is to be hoped, under the mass of whitewash which covers its walls--in the narthex they can still be distinguished. A History of Architecture in All Countries by James Fergusson (1874), p.442. ...


3

Before Islam, the widest Turkic belief was Tengrism. The first written sources for Turkic history, written by Asiatic descendants, was Old Turkic Orkhon inscriptions show that Turkic had a belief in the Tengri whom was described as god of the Turks whereas his domain was over the sky. Within Tengrism, even there was a hell and heaven beliefs, but was ...


3

Present day linguists do not consider the two peoples related. There was once a theory that they were related, but it has been very far out of favor for half a century now. However, there was a historic time when the two cultures intertwined, and this could possibly be what you are thinking of. This is the history of what is now the European nation of ...


3

Here Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual ISBN 0-7486-2137-7. Edinburgh University Press. Next time, look at the bottom of the Wikipedia article.


2

As @T.E.D. suggests this kind of things is better understood from the inside. so here is how I see it from Paris. President Sarkozy suddenly felt a hurry to push a so called "Armenian Genocide" law just before the last presidential election in order to rally the Armenian community which is quite influential in the French microcosm. That didn't help him to ...


2

As SigueSigueBen correctly points out, the worsening of relations between Turkey and Israel is part of a larger trend in which Turkey shifts its orientation from the West to the Arab and Muslim world. An older (2005) but very lucid and penetrating exposition of this process can be found in the book The New Turkey by Chris Morris.


2

Here is what I found after some search in Russian/Ukrainian internet. Apparently one inaccuracy is that in the main version (which is in Peterburg, this is actually the 2-nd version, and most famous because it was purchased by the tsar for the enormous price of 35 thousand roubles), several cossaks are smoking pipes. Actually a pipe is a traditional ...


2

In "Armenia: the case for a forgotten genocide", 1972, Dickran H. Boyajian quotes the deputy director of the settlement of refugees, who in 1916 said that 10% of refugees arrived at their destination. US Counsel Jesse B. Jackson reported that 85% of the deportees died in one of his official reports. Johannes Lepsius wrote two reports where he stated that ...


2

Hi Islam is not banned in Greece. Muslim Greeks are however discriminated against. Evidence of Islamic rule is very evident in Northern Greece. There are dozens of operating mosques on use in Thrace. These citizens are unfortunately exploited by the secular Kemalist State of modern Turkey. The majority of Greek Muslims were expelled to Turkey after the ...



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