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25

During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal commanded two army corps: One in Ankara and one in Erzurum. At first Erzurum was Kemal's base of operations, but on 27 December, 1919 he moved his Representative Committee to Ankara to be closer to Istanbul. Ankara also had a railway and being roughly at the center of Turkey made more sense ...


10

Two reasons: to increase literacy by simplifying the language, and to cut ties with the past (ie. the Ottomans) and forge a new secular Turkish identity. The Ottoman Turkish alphabet, a variant of Arabic, was not well suited to Turkish words and phonemes making it very hard to learn and use. In particular, Turkish has eight vowels, but vowels in Arabic are ...


6

Hitler wasn't interested in Turkey in itself, but let's analyse this option as a means to an end. Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia. Turkey did not offer this, it's a difficult country to move around with poor (at the time) ...


3

Officially, If you were a Muslim in Greece, you could be exempt from compulsory deportation if you were: part of the ethnic Albanian community a resident of Thrace The Greek government had placed no restrictions on religious conversions via marriage or baptism in the same fashion that the Turkish government did. Last minute conversions to prevent ...


3

As @Tom Au mentions, the newly found Republic of Turkey was led by Mustafa Kemal, later named Ataturk, or the Father of the Turks. Why was he named like this? Well, i'm glad you asked: He was a person that inspired a lot of Turks to fight for their homeland - because now they weren't fighting in some colony taken centuries ago for the glory of some perfumed ...


3

Here Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual ISBN 0-7486-2137-7. Edinburgh University Press. Next time, look at the bottom of the Wikipedia article.


3

This or other similar questions are very much debated, and does not have a simple answer. One shall start by asking who is a Greek, and who is a Turk. Throughout the history, in the geography where Turkey is situated today, hundreds of different civilizations had lived, and one replaced the other. Hellenization of Asia Minor and beyond reached its climax ...


2

Hi Islam is not banned in Greece. Muslim Greeks are however discriminated against. Evidence of Islamic rule is very evident in Northern Greece. There are dozens of operating mosques on use in Thrace. These citizens are unfortunately exploited by the secular Kemalist State of modern Turkey. The majority of Greek Muslims were expelled to Turkey after the ...


2

Had Hitler's plan to conquer both the Caucasus (part of Operation Barbarossa) and British-occupied Palestine (through Rommel) worked, Germany's intent was to link up both forces through Turkey. If Turkey would not have given its consent to German troop movements across its territory, then probably Germany would have attacked Turkey. Both German campaigns ...


2

Ethnic Turks first embraced Islam when they met the expanding Arab empire in modern day Iran (and slightly to the north and east). This was where the Turks had settled, and the Arabs were conquering in the late seventh, and eight centuries A.D. The Arabs feared Turkish military prowess more than that of the longer-term "locals," and offered economic and ...


2

The people of the fallen Ottoman Empire and of Turkey up until then had used Arabic script, the same script in which the Islamic Quran is written in. One of the main reasons that Mustafa Kemal Ataturk transformed the script of the country of Turkey into Latin and in essence secularized the nation was to weaken the power of the Quran. Ataturk's policies ...


1

In the 1920s, Turkey was led, militarily and politically by Mustapha Kemal, who was later designated as "Ataturk" or "Father of the Turks." In terms of his importance to the country, think of George Washington in the United States. During World War I, Kemal was "working his way up," at battles like Gallipoli, which the Turks won, even while they were losing ...


1

The reasons probably relate to World War I. There were three cities in northern Turkey of "capital" importance: Istanbul in the northwest, Ankara in the north center and Erzurum in the northeast. Erzurum was captured by "enemies" (Russia) during World War I, and Istanbul nearly so, by the British attack on Gallipoli. Both of these cities were also ...


1

2 Reasons: 1. Had to do with the early attitude of the Nazis towards moving the German Jews to Palestina. A friendly Turkey would serve the purpose as a large guardian state to keep Palestina in check. 2. Turkey was a muslim state and Hitler sought to galvanize the muslim world against the Jews - the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem would become one of Hitler's ...



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