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16

During the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal commanded two army corps: One in Ankara and one in Erzurum. At first Erzurum was Kemal's base of operations, but on 27 December, 1919 he moved his Representative Committee to Ankara to be closer to Istanbul. Ankara also had a railway and being roughly at the center of Turkey made more sense ...


15

Turkey, like Spain and Sweden, was a country that "served the purpose" for Germany during World War II without being attacked. Specifically, Turkey was a major supplier of chrome, a key war material, both in her own right, and through "transshipments" from modern Rhodesia and South Africa. A hostile Turkey might not have been as good a supplier of such ...


9

After the war between Greece and Turkey in the aftermath of WW I the two countries agreed on an exchange of minorities. But the question of who was “Greek” and who was “Turkish” was decided entirely on the basis of religion (and not language etc.). This means the ethnic Greek (Greek-speaking) converts to Islam were classified as Turks and deported to Turkey. ...


5

Reaching the Middle eastern Oilfields which are on the Persian Gulf is a lot harder than it looks, and getting the Oil back even harder. The railways don't go all the way and the Turkish railways were pretty low volume. Shipping just forget that the Axis dint have the tankers and RN would just sink them (too many bases not enough escorts). To rail the Oil ...


4

Hitler wasn't interested in Turkey in itself, but let's analyse this option as a means to an end. Hitler went to war as he wanted "Lebensraum" for his people, literally, "living room" and for that he needed Russia, specifically the Ukraine and European Russia. Turkey did not offer this, it's a difficult country to move around with poor (at the time) ...


4

First of all, the name of the Muslim-Turkish state that defeated Byzantine army in the 11th century at Manzikert was Great Seljuk Empire. As its name mentioned, though a relatively short lived one, it was indeed a great empire that extends from Central Asia to Egypt. Their Sultans, most governors and a significant part of their population were Oghuz Turks, ...


3

Present day linguists do not consider the two peoples related. There was once a theory that they were related, but it has been very far out of favor for half a century now. However, there was a historic time when the two cultures intertwined, and this could possibly be what you are thinking of. This is the history of what is now the European nation of ...


3

Originally the mosaics probably survived, Fergusson writing: The frescoes and mosaics have, indeed disappeared from the body of the church, hidden, it is to be hoped, under the mass of whitewash which covers its walls--in the narthex they can still be distinguished. A History of Architecture in All Countries by James Fergusson (1874), p.442. ...


3

Here Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual ISBN 0-7486-2137-7. Edinburgh University Press. Next time, look at the bottom of the Wikipedia article.


2

This or other similar questions are very much debated, and does not have a simple answer. One shall start by asking who is a Greek, and who is a Turk. Throughout the history, in the geography where Turkey is situated today, hundreds of different civilizations had lived, and one replaced the other. Hellenization of Asia Minor and beyond reached its climax ...


2

Hi Islam is not banned in Greece. Muslim Greeks are however discriminated against. Evidence of Islamic rule is very evident in Northern Greece. There are dozens of operating mosques on use in Thrace. These citizens are unfortunately exploited by the secular Kemalist State of modern Turkey. The majority of Greek Muslims were expelled to Turkey after the ...


2

Here is what I found after some search in Russian/Ukrainian internet. Apparently one inaccuracy is that in the main version (which is in Peterburg, this is actually the 2-nd version, and most famous because it was purchased by the tsar for the enormous price of 35 thousand roubles), several cossaks are smoking pipes. Actually a pipe is a traditional ...


1

Had Hitler's plan to conquer both the Caucasus (part of Operation Barbarossa) and British-occupied Palestine (through Rommel) worked, Germany's intent was to link up both forces through Turkey. If Turkey would not have given its consent to German troop movements across its territory, then probably Germany would have attacked Turkey. Both German campaigns ...


1

2 Reasons: 1. Had to do with the early attitude of the Nazis towards moving the German Jews to Palestina. A friendly Turkey would serve the purpose as a large guardian state to keep Palestina in check. 2. Turkey was a muslim state and Hitler sought to galvanize the muslim world against the Jews - the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem would become one of Hitler's ...


1

Ethnic Turks first embraced Islam when they met the expanding Arab empire in modern day Iran (and slightly to the north and east). This was where the Turks had settled, and the Arabs were conquering in the late seventh, and eight centuries A.D. The Arabs feared Turkish military prowess more than that of the longer-term "locals," and offered economic and ...



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